Circles and Squares

Insights into Korea's Sudden Rise

”東アジア――武器よさらば” (ザ・ハフィントン・ポスト・ジャパン 2014年 10月  20日)

ハフィントンポストジャパ

”東アジア――武器よさらば”

2014年 10月  20日

エマニュエル パストリッチ

ジョン・フェッファー

 原文

現在、東アジアは無数の課題を抱えている。東アジア諸国は領土問題、歴史認識、天然資源、さらには環太平洋の勢力均衡をめぐり互いに争っている。これらの課題すべてに対し、アメリカはつねに紋切り型のアプローチ、すなわち自由貿易と軍拡という薬を処方してきた。アメリカ合衆国が東アジアにおいて推し進めるTPP(環太平洋戦略的経済連携協定)の批准が成功する目途は今のところない。目下のところ、アメリカ政府は東アジアへの武器販売と軍事的役割分担という古い対処法に舞い戻っている。

オバマ政権のアジア重視戦略 (いわゆるアジア基軸は、この地域の紛争に関するアメリカの軍事的対応の最新版にすぎない。長年、ワシントンは東アジアの同盟国に高価なアメリカ製武器システムの導入と国防予算の増額を押しつけてきた。悲劇的にも、アメリカの軍事的福音の大団円は大惨劇ともいえる紛争に終わるかもしれず、それがアメリカの東アジアの影響に終止符を打つものとなるかも知れない。

東アジアの経済的繁栄は世界の羨望の的である。しかし、近年東アジアでの軍事支出の増加の勢いが100年前のヨーロッパを彷彿とさせるものとみなしても、あながち間違いではないであろう。実際、東アジアの国々は世界の軍事支出の上位を占めている。中国の軍事支出は世界第2位、日本は第8位、そして韓国は第10位とその順位を上げている。また、世界第3位のロシアの地政学的に極東での役割は重要であり、同国は中国、韓国との環境強化にも乗り出している。オーストラリアは世界第13位であり、東アジアにおける存在感を高めている。 Read more of this post

“To Regulate or Deregulate” (JoongAng Daily October 13, 2014)

JoongAng Daily

“To Regulate or Deregulate”

October 13, 2014

 

Many Koreans lament that Korea remains a strict culture that does not allow for creativity or self-expression such as one finds in so-called advanced nations. I am not sure that those Western countries are as open or as imaginative as Koreans think they are – but that is a different issue. What is curious for me, as a foreigner living in Korea, is that I tend to notice places where Korea needs more strictness and regulation.

For example, as most internationals living in Korea will surely understand, Korea needs to get serious about punishing traffic violations. On a daily basis I witness men on motorcycles who ride recklessly on the sidewalk – illegally – without any concern for the safety of pedestrians. Sometimes these men carry heavy loads of pipes or other construction materials that make their daredevil weaving between pedestrians even more treacherous. I witnessed a terrible accident involving a small child who was hit by a food delivery man of this “fast delivery nation” soon after I first came to live here. That memory still haunts me.

Korea owes it to its own citizens to make sure its sidewalks are safe for pedestrians. Automobiles and motorcycles should be forced to give pedestrians the right of way in every case. As Korea develops, its cities must increasingly be designed for people, not for automobiles.

Towards that goal, it is entirely legitimate, or even essential, that the police hand out substantial fines to those who violate traffic laws, and that motorcyclists who use sidewalks as if they were streets should be subject to the strictest punishments. If Korea’s police become proactive in imposing safety regulations in transportation, including swift suspension of licenses for those with more than one offense, and even jail sentences for serious violations, the country could be transformed and may become a model for the rest of Asia.

Another area that Korea needs to get tough in is on regulations concerning the appearance of buildings and stores. The nations that we admire most for their urban environments, like Switzerland, have detailed rules concerning how owners maintain their houses, including rules for what forms of windows, roofs, plaster and exterior decoration are permitted. Read more of this post

Emanuel’s talk at Peking University Department of Chinese Literature (October 11, 2014)

I had the great honor of presenting a paper about my research concerning the reception of Chinese vernacular narrative in Korea and Japan at the Chinese Department of Peking University on October 11. I received many extremely thoughtful questions from the audience and had a chance to exchange opinions with some leading figures in literary studies.

Professor Jiang Hongsheng of the Department of Chinese (and Department of Comparative Literature) at Peking University kindly introduces my talk.

Professor Jiang Hongsheng of the Department of Chinese (and Department of Comparative Literature) at Peking University kindly introduces my talk.

I introduce my book on the reception of Chinese narrative in Edo Japan "The Observable Mundane"

I introduce my book on the reception of Chinese narrative in Edo Japan “The Observable Mundane”

Read more of this post

“규제 엄격해진다고 자유 잃는 건 아니다” (중앙일보 2014년 10월 11일)

중앙일보

“규제 엄격해진다고 자유 잃는 건 아니다”

2014년 10월 11일

 

임마누엘 페스트라이쉬

 

 

많은 한국인은 선진국에 비해 개인의 창의성 발현이나 자기표현에 인색한 한국 문화를 아쉬워한다. 그런 서구 ‘선진국’은 실제로 한국인이 생각하는 것만큼 개방적이거나 창의적인 문화 속에 살고 있는지는 사실 확신이 서지 않는다. 이는 아마 다른 차원의 문제이리라. 다만 한국에 사는 외국인 입장에서 흥미로운 사실은 한국인들이 보다 더 엄격한 규제가 필요한 곳들이 의외로 많이 눈에 띈다는 점이다. Read more of this post

“지방대학교를 한국교육 중심으로” (대전일보 2007년 8월 29일)

대전일보

“지방대학교를 한국교육 중심으로”

2007년 8월 29일

 

 

링크 

오늘날 많은 한국의 대학들 가운데, 소위 명문학교는 주로 서울이나 해외에 모여 있으며 공부를 열심히 하려는 학생들은 그곳으로 유학(留學)을 하여야 좋은 교육을 받을 수 있다고 믿고 있다. 그런데 이러한 특이한 선입관은 사실은 그 역사가 상당히 짧다고 볼 수 있다. 세계화의 진입과정에 있어서, 과학기술과 사회의 발전을 촉진하는 사람과 사람을 연결하는 네트워크는 기존의 근대국가형의 조직을 초월할 것으로 추측되고 있다. 21세기에는 환경•교통•자원의 문제를 안고 있는 수도권보다는 보존과 개발의 균형을 잘 유지하고 있는 지방이 지적 영역에서 큰 역할을 할 것으로 보여진다.

자녀에게 최고 수준의 교육을 제공하려는 한국의 부모들의 모습이 오늘날의 사회적 현상인 것처럼 보이지만, 사실은 조선시대까지 거슬러 올라간다고 할 수 있다. 그 당시에 서원(書院)은 지방에 산재하였으며, 인문학과 실용과학전통을 결합하는 실학(實學)의 중심지 역할을 했다. Read more of this post

贝一明 演讲 于 北京大学 中文系 (2014年 10月 10日)

beijing

北京大学 中文系

2014年 10月 10日 (星期五)

贝一明 (Emanuel Pastreich) 庆熙大学 副教授

“中国通俗小说之影响于日朝”

时间: 下午 三点半 

地方: 北大食堂 

贝一明教授讲座海报(1)

“Climate change and the future of East Asia: Asia Institute & FPIF Seminar with John Feffer (October 30, 2014)

AI logo smallFPIFD

“Climate change and the future of East Asia:

First steps towards a new civilization”

John Feffer

Director

Foreign Policy in Focus (Asia Institute senior associate)

fwffwe

Emanuel Pastreich

Associate Professor

Kyung Hee University (Director, the Asia Institute)

lecture on literature

Date: Thursday October 30, 2014

Time 6:30-8:00 PM

Climate change, taking the form of spreading deserts, yellow dust, rising oceans and changing local biospheres, poses a tremendous challenge to Northeast Asia. Two figures central in the debate about the long-term response to this challenge will lead this open discussion in English for members of the Seoul community. The talk will address the fundamental shifts in our habits and culture demanded by this crisis. Read more of this post

 

“한·중 전통의 현재적 가치

서방 추종 아닌 전통에서혁신 모델 찾아야”

Chindia Plus

2014년 10월 (vol. 97)

포스코경영연구소

 링크 

In-depth Asia 해외전문가 칼럼

임마누엘 페스트라이쉬

한·중 경제 교류가 확대되면서 양국의 협력은 더욱 공고해지고 있다. 경제 교류뿐 아니라 문화 및 교육 협력 프로그램도 활발해지는 추세다. 한국과 중국의 문화 교류는 경제 및 환경 위기 시대에 새로운 비전을 제시해주는 방향으로 진행돼야 한다. 예를 들면 문화 교류에서 그치지 않고 두 문화에 숨겨진 좋은 선례를 찾아 전 세계에 알리는 것이다. 동양 전통에 나타나는 지속 가능성, 사회적 화합에 서양의 전통적 강점인 기술과 과학을 접목한다면 문명을 새로운 방향으로 이끌어갈 수 있다.

한국과 중국은 세계 역사상 매우 훌륭하고 혁신적인 통치제도를 구축했다. 이런 전통과 역사를 탐구함으로써 우리는 오늘날에 적용 가능한 통찰을 얻을 수 있을 것이다. 크게 견제와 균형을 통한 선정(善政), 외교 전략, 농업을 통한 지속 가능성, 교육 네 분야에서 생각해볼 수 있다.

먼저 견제와 균형을 통한 선정을 살펴보자. 과거 한국과 중국의 과거시험과 같은 관료선발제도, 중앙-지방 정부 간의 관계에서 발견되는 견제와 균형의 원리는 오늘날에도 큰 교훈을 준다. 일반적으로 근대 이전의 한국과 중국은 민주주의와 큰 관계가 없다고 생각하지만, 중국은 오늘날 우리가 말하는 민주주의를 형성하는 데 지대한 역할을 했다. 민주주의란 고대 그리스의 시민에 대한 개념과 중국 전통의 행정 기관 및 법치제도가 수렴된 것으로 보는 것이 가장 적합하다.

구체적으로 보자면 과거 한국과 중국에는 오늘날 다른 나라에서도 효과적으로 사용할 만한 공무원의 시험과 배치, 이동 제도가 많이 있었다. 이를 오늘날의 현실에 맞게 일부 수정해 적용한다면 현대사회의 부패 척결과 선정 확립에 도움이 될 수 있을 것이다. 한국과 중국의 역대 수많은 왕조에는 지방자치를 보장해주는 훌륭한 제도가 많았다. 역대 왕조의 모범사례 비교연구를 통해 오늘날 정부 개혁을 위한 구체적 제안도 마련할 수 있다.

한국과 중국은 시험제도를 통해 의욕 넘치고 헌신적인 정부 관리를 선출했었다. 특히 과거시험은 정부 내 부패 척결을 위한 효과적인 방법이다. 향후 정책 입안 시 중국은 문화적으로도 동떨어지고 몇 가지 문제점도 있는 이른바 ‘서방’ 모델을 좇기보다 과거를 재해석하는 편이 효과적일 것이다. 한국과 중국의 역사에 대한 객관적인 평가는 혁신을 추구하는 최선의 방법이 될 수 있다.

두 번째, 외교 분야를 살펴보자. 동아시아의 외교·안보 구조는 서방구조의 영향을 받아 형성된 경우가 많다. 많은 아시아 외교 전문가들은 우리가 냉전시대로 회귀하고 있다고 성급한 결론을 내리지만 이는 그들이 선례에 대한 지식이 없기 때문이다. 북핵 문제를 해결하기 위해 6자회담에 크게 의존하는 이유도 마찬가지다. 중국의 송나라는 백제나 고구려, 기타 다른 나라와 복잡한 외교 관계를 맺으면서 서방 세계의 냉전체제와는 달리 평화적인 분쟁 해결 방법을 제시해 동아시아 국가들과 안정적이고 평화적인 관계를 유지했었다. 류큐 왕국, 요나라, 북위(北魏)에서도 미래의 새로운 권력관계를 형성하는 데 활용할 만한 좋은 사례를 찾을 수 있을 것이다. 이런 사례들을 비롯해 한국과 중국 학자들이 외교사에 대한 공동연구를 진행한다면 현재의 외교문제 해결에 영감을 얻을 수 있을 것이다. 동아시아는 지난 600여 년 동안 유럽보다 성공적으로 국가 간 평화를 유지해 왔기 때문이다.

세 번째, 농업을 통한 지속 가능성이다. 땅과 물, 인구에 대해 역사적으로 검토해보면 한국과 중국에는 유기농 농업에 관한 귀중한 선례가 많다. 양국 모두 화학비료를 쓰지 않고 농사를 지어 많은 도시 인구를 먹여 살린 전통이 있다. 전 세계가 생태계의 안정성을 회복하기 위해 노력하고 있는 지금, 이 역시 동아시아의 사례에서 배워 활용할 수 있는 부분이다. 예를 들어 서울은 20세기까지 최소한의 에너지 사용과 100%에 가까운 재활용으로 거의 완벽에 가까운 생태도시를 유지했다.

마지막으로 교육 부문을 살펴보자. 과거 한국과 중국에는 혁신적이고 효과적인 아동 및 성인 교육법이 많았다. 이를 잘 활용한다면 현 교육 시스템을 개선할 수 있다. 한국과 중국에서 수세대에 걸쳐 발전해 온 전통적인 읽기와 쓰기, 암기, 토론 방법은 새로운 교육 혁신에 영감을 불어넣을 수 있을 것이다. 전통적인 유교 교육의 중심에는 윤리가 있었다. 하지만 현대 사회에서는 그렇지 않았다. 배움의 윤리적 의미에 대한 의식은 현 교육시스템에 다시 도입돼야만 한다.

다양하게 발전해 온 한국과 중국의 교육제도는 오늘날 대학이 학문과 토론의 장, 윤리적 행동의 중심이 되기 위해 어떻게 개혁돼야 하는지 보여준다. 전통 교육에서 학생을 평가하는 방식은 우리가 생각하는 것보다 훨씬 인간적이었다. 또한 평생에 걸친 사제 관계는 전통적 교육방법이 오늘날의 스승과 제자에게도 큰 가치가 있다는 것을 보여준다.

한국과 중국은 기술과 제도, 모든 면에서 점점 더 복잡한 단계로 진화하고 있다. 이럴 때일수록 근대 이전 전통과의 연속성을 찾아야만 한다. 그리고 양국 역사 속의 다양한 사례에서 실마리를 찾을 수 있을 것이다. 이것은 과거로의 회귀를 의미하는 것은 아니다. 오히려 미래를 향한 도전에서 새로운 정책과 기술, 제도에 대한 단서를 찾는 과정이 될 것이다. 르네상스 시절 고대 그리스와 로마의 장점이 전 세계에 알려진 것처럼 한국과 중국 전통의 장점이 다시 한 번 부각되기를 기대해본다.

Read more of this post

“University of Illinois as a World University” (Proposal by Emanuel Pastreich, June, 2000)

15 June, 2000  

“The University of Illinois as a World University” 

 

The Marriage of High Technology and Liberal Arts in the Field of East Asian Studies

 

The first steps towards a program for joint instruction between the University of Illinois, the University of Tokyo, Seoul National University and Peking University using advanced computer-guided video-conferencing technology and internet communications.

 

Short Term Goal:

Over the next two years a set of critical courses in the humanities at the University of Illinois, University of Tokyo, Seoul National University and Peking University will be open to students and faculty of all four participating schools using advanced computer technology provided by the Office of Instructional Resources. Taking advantage of its world-class program in computer engineering and computer science as well as advanced internet capability, the University of Illinois will be the first institution in the world to offer a program whereby courses taught in both English and the languages of Chinese, Japanese and Korean at four separate institutions in different countries are available to our students.

Although the use of such international links will eventually transform the entire university, it will be primarily in the humanities, and specifically in East Asian studies that we will begin this program. After a short pilot program limited to several focused seminars conducted entirely in English, a full program offering a wide variety of courses first to graduate students in East Asian Studies will be set up. Many courses will be offered that would otherwise be unavailable in the United States anywhere.

By dint of the overwhelming advantages that the University of Illinois holds in the computer sciences the humanities program at University of Illinois will be transformed. We will have a program in East Asian studies that will be the envy of schools in the United States and throughout the world. We will be able to promise within Liberal Arts and Sciences a group of scholars second to none because of the participation of those at universities in East Asia and elsewhere and would turn our program in East Asian studies, and other departments soon thereafter, into programs that could compete with any academic program in the country.

Whereas a private university such as Harvard can hire one or two outstanding teachers in any one field of East Asian studies, we would be able to offer access to courses at three major East Asian institutions thereby making ourselves an international center. Eventually our advantages in computer science will make the University of Illinois a vital center for studies in the humanities throughout the world.

Moreover, University of Illinois would not only offer courses in English in conjunction with  University of Tokyo, Seoul National University, Tsinghua University and Peking University, it would take on the role also of a transfer point through which courses shared via video-conferencing between those three universities were routed even in such cases as courses for which there was not great demand at University of Illinois. University of Illinois could promise to act as the hub for video-conferencing and internet instruction and eventually define the world standards for international education.

Long-term goal

The United States has closer economic and political ties with East Asia every day. Already the United States has considerably greater economic ties with East Asia than with Europe. After Mexico and Canada, which are essentially part of the domestic economy, the major trade partners are Japan, China, Germany, United Kingdom and Korea. At the current rate of change, China, Japan and Korea may well be come the top three in the next five years. Moreover, from electronics, to software and daily use items, East Asia has an immense impact on current manufacturing and technology. Our applied sciences are increasingly working in cooperation with East Asian academic institutions and private corporations. We have a large number of graduate students and faculty from East Asia. And yet East Asian Studies has not received the attention it deserves on our campus. A strong East Asian studies program with a reputation as strong as our E.C.E. & Computer Science departments is essential to the well-being of University of Illinois.

This project in international internet instruction will not only make University of Illinois the primary center for East Asian studies, it will make it a presence in East Asia as well.  Subsequently the reputation of University of Illinois within the humanities will increase. An outstanding program in East Asian studies will make all the difference as East Asian culture becomes more mainstream in the United States and the actual command of Chinese, Japanese and Korean more important in high technology fields. Already multi-Asian word processing is becoming an immense field in the computer industry.

No one has any doubt that we will need specialists in the future not only in the humanities, but also in technical fields, who have an outstanding ability in those languages. Access to instruction in the original language at universities in East Asia would make all the difference.

There is an absolute limit to what the University of Illinois can be as an international university unless its program in the humanities has at least as great a reputation as that in the sciences. This program will allow us to use our advantages in computer technology to catapult our program in the humanities to the top. Cooperation will extend into the applied sciences as well allowing for joint laboratories and joint programs in science and technology.

The program in connection with University of Tokyo, Seoul National University and Peking University would establish University of Illinois as a major center in East Asian studies. Eventually courses would be shared with universities in countries all over the world so that the student at University of Illinois would be able to access classes that would otherwise be unavailable. Likewise, our faculty could offer courses for a collection of students at different institutions that they would otherwise not be able to find a sufficient audience for.

Benefits to be obtained from this program of study

So much of our computer related research, interaction with high-tech corporations, and future markets for our graduates involve East Asia. Whereas a university like Harvard or Princeton has great advantages in terms of the financial backing for studies in the humanities, they are in fact limited in faculty to a few well-known professors. By setting up a lattice of courses of instruction available to students at University of Illinois, University of Tokyo, Seoul National University and Peking University  that is administered by the University of Illinois, we will be able to offer a breadth of courses that cannot be matched by any other university. We will not only level the playing field, we will make our technological advantage the key to our program in the humanities.

There remains considerable sensitivity between China, Japan and Korea at an institutional level even as the three countries are drawn together by economic, technical and cultural ties with the United States and each other. For this reason, the University of Illinois is in the unique position of being able to act as a conduit for intellectual exchange between the three Asian countries which will dominate the economy and culture of the 21st century.

It would be far easier for a student at University of Tokyo to take courses at Peking University through our program than to actually work through the complex bureaucracy surrounding such study in Japan or China.

The University of Illinois program in international video-conferencing and internet instruction could become a major institution within East Asia, and as East Asia increases in importance, so will University of Illinois.

Our program will be extended out into the sciences as well, thereby allowing cooperation on scientific projects between the four institutions at a level of complexity and immediacy previously unimaginable. If the University of Illinois acts quickly it can seize the lead in what will be an inevitable revolution in higher education.

Although initial instruction will focus on East Asia, once the system is in place, courses at universities in France, Germany, Italy, Turkey, or elsewhere will also be handled. Specialized courses that could not be offered before due to low appeal to the overall student body will then be available. Problems concerning visas for students and visiting faculty will cease to be a concern.

The disadvantages of University of Illinois location would be completely offset by this program, and the flexibility of the university as a whole in engaging in this project would soon make it a rival with major Ivy League universities. We might not have the endowments that those universities have, but we would be able to match their offerings, their foreign programs, and their faculty. University of Illinois would become the conduit for this new network of international scholarly exchange–and if we do it quickly, we have the chance to jump to the forefront of the academic world.

Steps involved:

A) A series of focused academic conferences on set topics involving University of Tokyo, SeoulNationalUniversity, TsinghuaUniversity and PekingUniversity. A conference on a subject such as “Modern Chinese history” will include scholars from each participating university and allow us to employ the new medium. Such academic events will make the power of this new approach quite clear to all involved.

B) Discussions with University of Tokyo, Seoul National University and Peking University concerning the administration of a trial run of the video-conferencing instruction program. Must make sure that video conferencing facilities were available at the appropriate time at all four campuses, and that their software was mutually compatible. First trial will be entirely courses that are conducted in English, 2000-2001. Either an ISDN or  I.P.  line, or the new Access Grid of Electronic Visualization Lab  will be employed. The times for classes will be China time 8 AM – 11:30 AM; Seoul/Tokyo9 AM – 12:30 PM; Champaign-Urbana  6-9:30 PM

C)  Set up small administration for the trial program.

D)  Arrange for a set of classes at each university to be available via video-conferencing to students at all four of the universities on a regular basis. Set up a unified format for the video-conferencing and internet components of these courses. Set up a system for organizing the courses and allowing courses to be available not only to students from University of Illinois, but also simultaneously to students at the other three campuses. Thus a course on Japanese history at University of Illinois, for example, would be attended by students from Beijing, Tokyo and Seoul.  The first run would be courses carried in English in the humanities in East Asian studies at each institution that would then be available at all four universities for real time participation (available at University of Illinois from 6-9 PM). Other courses would be taped from all four universities and be made available on the web to a limited number of students at all four campuses. On line asynchronous discussions will supplement the occasional video conferences.

At first a pilot program limited to four seminars (one at each campus) conducted entirely in English will be undertaken.

Eventually a specially outfitted room, or series of rooms at each respective campus complete with a life-size transmitter screen, a simultaneous electronic writing board, instantaneous interactive pads for each students, and complete internet e-mail equipment for interaction in English, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean would be set up at each campus.

D) Set up a program for granting credit for the courses offered by the program between the four universities.

E) Put together database of all faculty at each of the institutions participating that can be readily adjusted at a later date so that scholars covering similar subjects can easily communicate with each other.

F) Run a set of courses for which credit is actually granted between all four universities.

G) Expand that set of courses from one humanities course for each university to include courses in both the humanities and the sciences. Also arrange for video conferencing between the seven universities as part of joint research in the humanities and the sciences.

H) Arrange for the use of such video conferencing to set up joint laboratories in the sciences between Asia, Europe and the University of Illinois. Expand the range of the technology quickly so as to make the University of Illinois a clear world leader in education.

Basic approaches

1)          Lectures from designated classes that are recorded on video and made

available at the other campuses. Students would watch the lectures then compose

e-mail format responses (or postings on a web page) that would be responded to

by teaching assistants at the campus from which the lecture originated. The

video recordings of lectures would be divided into two different categories:

video tapes of lectures that could be kept permanently on file & video tapes of

lectures that could be shown only one time and then have to be destroyed.

2)          E-mail address exchanges between students at each university studying similar subjects. The students would carry out an extended dialog via e-mail, or

postings at a common web page for the course of a semester—perhaps working on

projects together. After a month or so, there would be a video conference

discussion between students on a the topic they had previously investigated.

3)          Extended video conference academic conferencing on set topics for professors and researchers. Scholars working on a similar topic would meet to discuss a topic of common interest via video conference. They would first exchange comments on set topics via postings at a common web page (in whichever language was most appropriate ECJK). As scholars would not have to pay for travel and eventually will be able to carry out such academic conferences from the computers they have at home, the international conference will become far, far easier.

4)          Occasional meetings via video conference for students taking similar courses at all four universities. Faculty members would also be present for these

non-credit intellectual exchanges.

5)          Selected seminars conducted entirely via video conference including students from all four campuses (conducted in language appropriate to the subject). These seminars would be conducted largely via daily posting at common websites with an actual video conference once a week, or perhaps once every two weeks  (alternating with a meeting of students at the local campus). Papers would be  sent via e-mail for grading, but require a special code to identify them as original. The grade received by a student is in all cases at his own institution, so there is no problem with credit for the course attended.

6)          Joint web pages between administrators at each institution that are accessible only by code. These web pages would allow the presidents of each institution, for example, to share valuable information or tips for future cooperation without that information becoming public. It would make it simple for a dean, for example, to figure out who is the person of equivalent rank in the other three institutions.

7)          Joint web pages shared by scholars in similar fields. Thereby professors in Chinese studies, for example could easily go to a web pages on which all scholars working on China at all four institutions are listed. They could then proceed to arrange scholarly exchanges on their own.

8)          50 minute multi-media class modules on a set topic prepared for viewing via internet at each university. The module would consist of A) a spoken lecture by a professor; B) a set of images related to the topic; C) a set of relevant texts illustrating the issues concerned; D) recordings of relevant sounds. So a 50 minute module on Chinese poetry would consist of a selections from a lecture on the topic by a professor, images of Chinese landscape and traditional clothing, selections from Chinese poems in the original language and in translation and a recording of a poet reciting his own composition. After observing the entire module, the student would respond to various topics and engage in an e-mail discussion with students at his campus and the other three campuses. He would also have to respond to the teaching assistant who would grade him on his comments.

9)          Massively parallel research laboratories. Scholars conducting research on a specialized topic, say chip fabrication, would be connected via a dense tissue of video conferencing, sophisticated shared web pages, shared data bases and systematically coordinated planning. Therefore massive parallel research laboratories could be created between the four universities in which faculty and facilities could be massed and complex tasks partitioned and assigned so as to avoid duplication. The result would be a new level of speed and sophistication.

10)        Immigration has become an issue and the governments of Korea, Japan and the United States have made it more difficult for Chinese students to obtain visas recently. Although such policies are often unfair, immigration is a serious issue to take into account. If Chinese students and scholars can participate completely in the universities of Korea, Japan and the United States via internet and video conferencing, however, they can make a full contribution without leaving China. After they have finished their studies, they can work for international companies and make a significant contribution to the world economy while remaining in China and using such internet, shared databases and video conferencing technology.

11)

ASYNCHRONOUS SYMPOSIUM:

The asynchronous symposium is an innovative format in Internet communication designed to allow intellectual discourse between individuals with similar fields of expertise who otherwise would never have any contact for reasons of culture. In a nutshell, there are four parallel web pages representing a basic “chat room” on which participants can post their responses to a given topic. In this first experiment, the languages of English, Japanese, Chinese and Korean are suggested, although obviously there is no limit. The responses posted by scholars on each of four parallel web pages are then translated into the other three languages and posted for the other participants to read. The first asynchronous symposium will discuss the broad issue of technology and globalization. Once the web pages have been developed and translators are found, any number of subjects can be brought up.

THE ASYNCHRONOUS SYMPOSIUM IS CONDUCTED EMPLOYING FOUR PARALLEL WEB PAGES.

The Asynchronous Symposium is conducted over four parallel (but linked) web pages. One page is set for English input, one for Chinese, one for Japanese and one for Korean. A set of questions or topics are posted at the top of each web page in the four languages. Scholars (or experts) post their responses to the given subject at the web page set for their own language. Thus a Chinese scholar merely composes in Chinese. Graduate students (or professional translators) are paid to translate the postings into the other three languages from each web page every twelve hours. Therefore a scholar reading the postings in any one of the four languages can have a discussion with others with similar interests but unable to express themselves in a foreign language. A special code is required to log on to a page.

This format allows meaningful dialogs between individuals who would otherwise never communicate. Even if they met, they would most likely feel ill-at-ease or inarticulate. The cost of paying graduate students to do the translation is minimal compared with the costs of putting together an international conference—although the relationships established by these asynchronous exchanges may lead to further projects. Moreover, the results of such an asynchronous symposium would most likely be worthy of publication in a magazine or newspaper.

Major intellectuals or government officials in China, Japan or Korea may well get in the habit of logging on to this informal discussion when they grow tired of their work late at night. We may well get insights otherwise unavailable.

 

Underlying  Principles for the University

I

The next generation of the internet will bring far more reliable and user-friendly means of communicating information. As a result a thick binding tissue will develop between institutions involved in the systematic application of internet connections. The implication is that the effectiveness of one’s hierarchy of connections, and its user-friendliness will determine the status of the university more than actual physical installations on campus. The internet and video conference ties to other universities of scale abroad will make the difference to the university. This truth has not been realized, but it will soon be apparent.

II

When we visualize the university, we should imagine a mirror that has been broken into hundreds of shards and lies spread across the floor. Each splinter shines brightly and the total is most impressive. The important point, I feel, is what can be achieved if each of the fragments of glass is tilted ever so slightly. Each fragment does not have to actually be moved, or transplanted, just propped up in one direction or another. Once this process is achieved, the light reflected from each piece will converge on a single point, a single goal. Then the light reflected by those many fragments will be powerful enough to vaporize the dense stone. Imagine if we could add the light reflected by fragments from other institutions to that beam.

III

There are figures who made great fortunes in real estate by pursuing the following strategy. They look at maps of the city over a period of twenty or thirty years, figure out where the business and residential centers are, then interpolate as to how the city will expand and transform over the next five to ten years. Once they have mapped out their speculations as to what will happen to the population in the near  future, they buy farmland in those areas that look like they are marked for development. Once the farmland is bought, it can be rented back to farmers, and the proper moment must be awaited. We should plan for the university in precisely this manner.

IV

Video conferencing will make teaching over the net far more legitimate and convincing in the next few years. Internet technology is rapidly moving towards a “just like actually being there” state. It is not there yet, but this is the time to approach the technology systematically. Video conferencing will also become a central part of the internet as well during that period. This moment is the best moment to enter into the field in a systematic manner.

V

Time zones can be a problem, but asynchronous learning can be as effective, or more effective, than live teaching. Asynchronous discussions punctuated with live video conferencing can achieve all required goals. Written responses can be far better than classroom comments. It is just a matter of refining the technique.

VII

Internet connections can be viewed as connective fiber tying together institutions. Pairing up specialists at different universities as that connective fiber grows thicker can lead to a unique international academic community.

Read more of this post

“Climate change and the future of East Asia” John Feffer and Emanuel Pastreich (October 30, 2014)

AI logo small

“Climate change and the future of East Asia:

First steps towards a new civilization”

John Feffer

Director

Foreign Policy in Focus (Asia Institute senior associate)

fwffwe

Emanuel Pastreich

Associate Professor

Kyung Hee University (Director, the Asia Institute)

lecture on literature

Date: Thursday October 30, 2014

Time 6:30-8:00 PM

Climate change, taking the form of spreading deserts, yellow dust, rising oceans and changing local biospheres, poses a tremendous challenge to Northeast Asia. Two figures central in the debate about the long-term response to this challenge will lead this open discussion in English for members of the Seoul community. The talk will address the fundamental shifts in our habits and culture demanded by this crisis.

The specific issues of climate change and human civilization in East Asia will be at the center of this discussion.

Location:

World Culture Open Korea

월드컬처오픈코리아

서울특별시 중구 순화동 2-6 N빌딩 1층 오렌지컨테이너

02-6958-8870

http://www.worldcultureopen.org/ko

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 87 other followers