Monthly Archives: January 2016

Emanuel Pastreich interview with British Amb. Charles Hay @ Arirang TV

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Arirang TV   G Lounge

 

Interview with

Charles Hay

British Ambassador to the Republic of South Korea Charles Hay

 

Hosted by

Emanuel Pastreich

Director

The Asia Institute

 

January 17, 2016

“Time for the US to Start a RIMPAC for Climate Change” (The Diplomat, January 20, 2016)

The Diplomat

“Time for the US to Start a RIMPAC for Climate Change”

January 20, 2016

 

 

Rising tensions between China and Japan over territorial issues, combined with disputes over historical issues such as the Korean comfort women, have created a political environment that encourages military responses and confrontation. The recent nuclear test by North Korea has heightened the distrust to such a level that we can look forward to a massive arms race that will involve not only the nations of Northeast Asia, but possibly those of Southeast Asia as well.

Now is the moment for moral courage on the part of the United States. The United States, and specifically the Pacific Command, must step forward and engage in honest and practical dialog on security issues. It needs to suggest innovative, collaborative approaches to security problems, interacting with all the nations of the region in a transparent manner that encourages cooperation, not competition. We must make sure that security and defense policies are not rooted in an unimaginative and outdated Cold War conception of deterrence and containment, but rather are responses to emerging nontraditional threats.

The recent Paris Climate Conference (COP 21 Paris) has laid down concrete demands for a rapid shift to a low-carbon model for development that should serve as the basis for closer collaboration in military affairs between the United States, Japan, Korea and China, and ASEAN nations.

The Pacific Command should engage all members of the Asian community in a deep dialog about how the region’s militaries can transform military relations in the region. This transformation would take place through the military’s transitioning to play a leading role in mitigating and adapting to climate change, and it would create a new, regional, cooperative culture in the Pacific. Read more of this post

“采访哈佛大学的传奇院长亨利•罗索夫斯基” (今日亚洲 2016年 1月 20日)

 

 

今日亚洲

“采访哈佛大学的传奇院长亨利•罗索夫斯基

追求卓越的秘密和亚洲高校的前景”

2016 1 20

一明 (Emanuel Pastreich)

rosovsky     

 

———————————

一明:

自从第二次世界大战结束以来,哈佛大学就在世界上扮演了重要的角色。虽然哈佛大学的声誉由来已久,但历史上的哈佛大学,例如从上世纪初直到30年代时,它还无法和英国、德国或者法国的大学相提并论。那么哈佛大学之所以能获得今天的地位,其原因何在?
索夫斯基:
想打造一所伟大的大学绝非易事。我认为有一点十分重要,它通常都被人们所误解,尤其是在亚洲地区。打造一所世界一流的大学需要很长时间,而且毫无捷径。人们通常会想,如果我们投资足够多的钱,那么几年以后就能建成一所世界一流的大学。我在全世界各国都听到过这样的想法。然而在那么短的时间里并不会出现奇迹,它需要时间,也需要几代人的努力。

不过,有一些因素的确可以帮助我们开发一所大学的潜力,让它变得更加优秀。就拿哈佛大学来说吧,到了1936年建校三百周年的时候,它已经成为了一所世界一流的大学,然而也并没有达到今天这样的高度。

那么上世纪三十年代之后直到今天,哈佛又发生了什么呢?二战以后,美国的经济变得日益强大,吸引了全世界的许多资源和人才。这其中对哈佛大学的发展起到重要作用的人物是詹姆斯•布赖恩特•柯南特,他于1933年至1953年出任哈佛大学校长。
一明:

那么柯南特校长来到哈佛之后采取了什么特别的措施呢?
索夫斯基:

1933年他出任哈佛大学校长之后采取了一些改革措施,取消了一些守旧的做法,例如要求学生学习拉丁文课程等。他领导下的哈佛开始从更加广泛的社会群体中招收学生,而不仅仅是精英阶层。在他任期的前几年,哈佛研究生院还开始招收女学生。

不过他最大的贡献还在于制定了“不升职就走人”的政策。这个制度从二十世纪三十年代晚期至四十年代初期开始实行,哈佛的教授们有一个长达八年的试用期,在此期间如果不能完成逐年递增的科研任务,就会被学校解聘。

在那之前,哈佛有许多不错的人,但学校对他们没有特殊的要求,因此他们只是一辈子待在学校里,有些不思进取。他们当中有些人还是优秀的教师,但他们没有压力,所以不求事业的发展。

“不升职就走人”的制度并不是拍脑瓜政策,哈佛用这项著名的制度来评估他的专家教授们,用他们在某个领域所取得的学术成就来决定谁该升职。这项措施让评定教师职称的标准从学院内部的人际关系变成了学术领域的成就。

你可能已经注意到了,我刚才重点强调的是教师队伍的建设,而不是教学设施、预算、资助或者优秀的学生。我这么说是因为,作为一个拥有数十年工作经验的教师、学者和管理者,我相信教师队伍的素质决定了一所大学的质量,其他的东西都取决于教师队伍的建设。有优秀的教师,才能吸引优秀的学生,你的毕业生才肯为学校捐款。

哈佛的另一项创新之举是聘用学术行业里最顶尖的人才担任教职,我认为这让哈佛改变了许多。在二战结束后的日子里,哈佛一直在努力寻找最优秀的人才,而不是任人唯亲和依靠裙带关系,因此哈佛没有那种按照个人关系来决定教师去留的氛围。

作为一个学院的院长,我对哈佛的这种校园文化十分了解。我们所做的一切都是为了把世界上最优秀的人纳入麾下。 Read more of this post

Visit to Danwon High School (January 11, 2016)

Professor Kim Hyung-yul (chairman of the Asia Institute) and I drove down to Danwon to meet with several of the parents of the children who died o April 16 2014 when the Sewol Ferry they were riding on sunk and they were told to stay in their seats as the pilot of the ferry jumped off the boat to safety. The concern with a Korea that has become unlivable for young people, known popularly as “Hell Chosun” is best represented by this incident. The sinking ferry is considered as a symbol for the state and the students the young people who are abandoned by those in business seeking short-term profits.

We spent four hours at the makeshift memorial shrine to the students that has been erected near the district of Danwon. We also visited Danwon High School to see the classrooms that have been turned into shrines to entire classes of students who died together in the dark in corridors that had turned upside down and were flooded with cold water. The photographs taken at the very last moments by students have been banned from public release for the most part.

The temporary memorial to the victims of the Sewol Ferry sinking in Danwon.

The temporary memorial to the victims of the Sewol Ferry sinking in Danwon. The surviving students and parents have put enormous effort into creating an appropriate space, but the future of this memorial remains in doubt.

 

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Geography of tragedy.

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Pictures of the students who died are lined up inside the memorial.

 

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Offerings to the victims represented in the memorial are brought daily. Birthdays of students

are solemnly celebrated by family members and classmates.

 

 

chilrens

 

A personal note for a silent birthday.

 

Inside one of the classrooms in the high school which has been turned into a mausoleum.

Inside one of the classrooms in the high school which has been turned into a mausoleum. Each desk features items that belonged to the student. In one class, a single student survived to live on in shock.

 

The white board in four of the classrooms of Danwon are frozen in time.

The white board in four of the classrooms of Danwon are frozen in time.

Chinese section at Kyobo Books

There are many aspects of Kyobo Bookstore in Gwanghwamun that bother me. First and foremost is the decision to stop being a book store and turn into a department store that sells speakers, socks, candles, stationary supplies, bags and snacks. In addition the number of books lying on their sides (as opposed to on shelves) has increased, but the total number of books, and variety of books, has declined precipitously over the last eight years I have been coming here.

But by far the saddest part of the Kyobo Bookstore is the Chinese book section. As opposed to the English language section which includes a good stock, and a few worth reading, or the Japanese section, which is more limited, but still sufficient, the Chinese section is just four shelves in an extremely obscure corner. You would never find it if you did not ask.

The books are translations of Western (and some Japanese) mainstream works. Not a single book by a significant book by a Chinese writer is to be found.

Not sure I know why Kyobo has invested so little in the Chinese section, but it looks like a mistake granted just how important to Korea China has become.

The Chinese book section at Kyobo Books is only about four shelves and contains not a single significant Chinese book.

The Chinese book section at Kyobo Books is only about four shelves and contains not a single significant Chinese book.

The Chinese books are translations of Western and Japanese books or bland how-to books by unknown authors.

The Chinese books are translations of Western and Japanese books or bland how-to books by unknown authors.

“Why Wikipedia Is in Trouble” Emanuel Pastreich

Emanuel Pastreich

“Why Wikipedia Is in Trouble”

 

 

 

This Time Magazine article “Why Wikipedia Is in Trouble”

(January 14, 2016) suggests that Wikipedia is in trouble because of some obscure cultural inflexibility. Although the problems with Wikipedia, despite its considerable popularity, are quite serious, the article intentionally misdiagnoses the problem so as to distract the reader from the real issues.

The failure of the article is perfect representation of the profound corruption of popular media in the United States. One of the most powerful myths even today is that media is simply dying because of the internet. If the information in the was sufficiently relevant and accurate, people would pay for it on-line. The problem is rather that media is increasingly written to protect special interests, rather than to deliver media. Media content is more often a mixture of propaganda with a bit of truth to make an almost convincing argument that will impact perceptions while avoiding a rational argument.

Let us look at what the article states:

 

“The problem, most researchers and Wikipedia stewards seem to agree, is that the core community of Wikipedians are too hostile to newcomers, scaring them off with intractable guidelines and a general defensiveness. One detailed study from 2012 found that new editors often find that their first contributions to the site are quickly rejected by more experienced users, which directly correlates with a drop in the likelihood that they will continue to contribute to the site.”

 

I have had a variety of battles with Wikipedians and I do not believe that they are simply hostile to new comers because of some form of cultural conservatism. They are hostile to people who have a different conception of Wikipedia which they consider to be a threat to their economic and political interests. The problem not more, or less, complex than that. Read more of this post

「日本の自衛隊が世界を救う 」 (ハフィントンポスト 2016年 1月 13日)

ハフィントンポスト

「日本の自衛隊が世界を救う 」

2016年 1月 13日

 

エマニュエル パストリッチ

 

 

領土問題をめぐる中国と日本の間の緊張の高まりは、韓国との慰安婦などの歴史問題をめぐる論争と組み合わさり、日本が隣国から軍事的にも政治的にも攻撃的だと思われる政治的な環境を作り出している。この傾向は、最近核実験を行った北朝鮮や、中国との対立に備えてますます保守反動化している米軍と相まっている。

こうした不信と競争のムードは、北東アジアに国が関与する大規模な軍備競争を呼び起こすだけでなく、おそらく東南アジアをも巻き込むかもしれない。

今こそ真の指導者として、日本は道徳的な勇気を奮い起こす瞬間である。日本は前進し、地域のすべての国との安全保障問題に関する誠実かつ実践的な対話に、競争ではなく協力を促す透明な方法で従事しなければならない。それは共同によるもので、安全保障問題への新しい、革新的なアプローチを示唆している必要がある。

日本の安全保障と防衛政策は、冷戦に基づく抑止と封じ込めという想像力に欠ける時代遅れの発想ではなく、新興の非伝統的な脅威への対策に立脚することを我々は確認する必要がある。日本がこうした転換を行うことができれば、追従者ではなく、リーダーの役割を果たすことができる。

最近行われたパリ気候会議(COP21パリ)では、日本、韓国、中国、及びASEAN諸国間の軍事における緊密な協力のための基礎となるべき開発のため、低炭素モデルへの迅速な移行の具体的な要求がなされた。

アジア各国の軍が気候変動の緩和と環境適応を達成するため、どう転換して行けばよいかについて、日本の自衛隊は、アジア共同体のすべてのメンバーとともに濃密な対談の場を開き、軍事において新たな国際協力の文化を築くことを目指すべきである。 Read more of this post

“贝淡宁:用贤能政治衡量中国体制更合适” (环球日报 2016年 1月 12日)

环球日报

“贝淡宁:用贤能政治衡量中国体制更合适”

2016年 1月 12日

贝一明

亚洲研究所所长

 

 

儒家文化复兴为中国发展提供道德支撑

 

过去30多年来,中国最引人瞩目的文化变革就是传统的复兴。这种复兴既是精心策划的结果,也有自发的因素。20世纪尤其1949年以来,文化呈现出来的一个主要方面就是反传统主义。再往前溯,及至1919年“五四运动”甚至之前,无论金融精英、自由人士、马克思主义者还是无政府主义者,均认为中国贫穷落后,根源之一便是落后的传统文化。

但过去30年来,中国以及韩国等其他拥有儒家文化传统的东亚国家经历了一场对传统的戏剧性再评估。在此期间,这一地区经济增长迅猛,贫困人口大幅缩减,同时又一直保持着和平稳定。而当人们举目四望、探寻这些国家有何共同点时,答案之一就是它们都继承了儒家传统。尽管过去的叙事基本都是儒家文化阻碍了现代化和经济增长,但现在很多人都认为:儒家文化实际上发挥了促进作用。

我们正在目睹一种更具历史色彩和人文特征的视角的回归,它更强调教育,注重跨越代际的大家庭伦理。延及政治领域,这种儒家视角促进了有关中国贤能政治传统的价值重估。长期以来,中国人一直认为政治体制的关键在于选拔和擢升具有较强能力、道德品质、社会文化技能并能带领国家前进的领导者。这种视角虽有儒家根源,但现在已然经历现代化的演变,变成中国以及韩国、日本等其他东亚国家经济发展战略的核心。尽管儒家思想在“文化大革命”期间遭到批判,但它现在再次回到舞台中央。如今,儒家核心价值的推广和促进已不仅限于政治治理层面,商业和非盈利性行业也都在这样做。 Read more of this post

“Interview with Harvard’s Legendary Dean Henry Rosovsky” (Huffington Post, January 9, 2016)

Huffington Post

 

“Interview with Harvard’s Legendary Dean Henry Rosovsky:

The Secret of excellence and the prospects for Asian Higher Learning”

rosovsky 

January 9, 2016

 

Emanuel Pastreich

 

 

Pastreich: 
Harvard University had obtained a remarkable global role since the end of the Second World War. Of course it has been a strong institution for a long time, but if we think back, in 1900, or even in 1930, it was not considered to be on the same level as some universities in England, Germany or France. What exactly was it that allowed Harvard to reach the status that it enjoys today?

Rosovsky: 
The task of building a great university is never simple.

Let me stress one point because it’s so often misunderstood, and we see this in Asia today: To become a world-class university takes a lot of time. There are simply no shortcuts. People tend to assume, and I have encountered this sort of thinking all over the world, that if they just sink enough money into a university, it will emerge in a few years as a first-class institution. But such rapid growth never happens. It takes time; it takes generations.

That said, there are a few clear factors that determine the potential of a university to reach the highest levels of excellence. In the case of Harvard University, it was true that by the time of its tercentenary (300th anniversary of its founding) in 1936, Harvard had already achieved a reputation as a world-class institution. Harvard did not have the stature that it does today.

So what specifically happened between the nineteen-thirties and now? Well the United States became more economically powerful and attracted more resources and faculty from around the world after the Second World War. But one very important development were the innovations introduced by President James Bryant Conant who served as president from 1933 to1953.

Pastreich:
What were the specific steps that President Conant took as president to transform Harvard? Read more of this post

“これからの日韓関係に対する私の夢” (ハフィントンポスト 2016年 1月 8日)

ハフィントンポスト

 

 

 

“これからの日韓関係に対する私の夢”

2016年 1月 8日 

エマニュエル パストリッチ

「慰安婦問題」の日韓政府合意のニュースを聞いたとき、私は半信半疑だった。慰安婦問題は、人々の感情を逆撫でし、十年以上も日韓関係の障害になってきた。それが、二人の外交官が密室で交わしたやりとりによって、そう簡単に解決できる訳がない。帝国主義の悲痛の記憶と、植民地時代の問題に対する軽視は、いまだ我々の傍に残っている。同じ過ちを、知らぬ間に再び犯してしまわぬように、こうした問題を決して忘れず、自らの戒めとしなくてはならない。

これから歩む道を、両国で合意して築くためには、対話の場に多くの人々が参加するしかない。日本と韓国の専門家、一般国民が会って、こうした問題、そして現代との関連を話し合う機会が、我々には必要である。こうした国民のコンセンサス抜きには、政府高官によって交わされた合意は、本来の意図がどうであれ、ごまかしだと解釈されてしまうだろう。

私には、金大中政権時代に日韓の文化交流が増えたことが、今でも印象に残っている。当時、イリノイ大学で日本文学の教授だった私は、両国がより客観的な視点で歴史問題の解決に着手し、お互いが共に協力し合える時期がいよいよ来たのだろうと、心を励まされた。

しかし、(経済や貿易に対し)人的交流による日本と韓国の協力の可能性は、失敗に終わった。重要な問題について日本人と韓国人が意見を交換できる機会も減ってしまった。自由貿易交渉、領土問題について高級官僚らの会議があったが、市民同士が親交を深め、何かの目的に向かって一緒に力を合わせる機会は減った。

日韓関係は、私にとってとても大切である。私は、両国の文学と文化の研究にキャリアを捧げてきたため、どちらの国もふるさと同然である。 Read more of this post