Monthly Archives: January 2017

Andre Breton’s “Naked” as a poem for today

Like a sunful of skyrockets
I saw you slowly removing from among the radiolarians
The empty shell of the sea urchin I ‘d been
But wait I wasn’t there anymore
I was casting eyes to the skies because already my lving casket of white velvet had abandoned me
And I was sad
The sky between the leaves shone haggard and hard as a dragonfly
And I was just about to close both my eyes
When two wooden blinders which had flown apart suddenly snapped shut again
Without a sound
Like the two innermost leaves of an immense Lily of the Valley
A flower able to contain the entire night
So I was there where you see me still
Amid perfumes chiming out in great pealing waves
But before they could spring open once again as each day they do in this changing life
I had just enough time to fasten my lips
Firmly on your glass thighs

Andre Breton

“The Next Economic Crisis” (JoongAng Daily)

January 31, 2017

“The Next Economic Crisis”

JoongAng Daily

Emanuel Pastreich



Recent data suggests that in terms of unemployment, bankruptcies and declining exports, Korea’s economy is in worse shape today than it was before the 1997 IMF crisis.

But this time around, the United States and other Western countries have far weaker economies and growing economic nationalistic agendas suggest that getting a bailout will be difficult. Any large-scale loans, judging from what happened in Greece, will come at tremendous cost to sovereignty.

If we look at the question of liquidity, it seems that a foreign bailout would most likely come from China — and at the very moment that China is enraged with Korea’s decision to deploy the Thaad missile defense system. That would be a tough deal to reach, even for the best Korean negotiators.

But there is also the distinct possibility that there will not be any foreign bailout that is politically acceptable to Koreans. That might mean Korea will have to create its own capital and its own reform.

But to my amazement, there is no discussion in the Korean media about how Korea is going to respond to this crisis. The time has come to break the taboo and start an open discussion about what Korea will do and how we will reform the entire Korean economic system.

First and foremost, banks should be highly regulated, very predictable and extremely boring. Speculation and quick profits should be actively discouraged by law. Elaborate financial instruments make regulation difficult and they open the door to manipulation.

We need to make sure that regulators of banks are capable, inspired and highly motivated men and women — and that they have the authority to make sure that banks follow strict rules on the use of their reserves. We need to create a new class of regulators, and I hope that they will be young and ambitious and free to make decisions without their elders pressuring them. We need to go back to the original Confucian system and have young people take exams as a form of higher service to the nation. The exams should not test facts but demand the taker provide solutions to difficult problems based on ethical principles. We need civil servants who are proud of their high standards and are not easily corrupted by the large amounts of money flowing through the system.
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“「No」と言える日本は絶対に必要 日本はマティス国防長官に独自の安保ビジョンを提案すべきである” (ハフィントン ポスト 2017年 1月 25日)

ハフィントン ポスト

“「No」と言える日本は絶対に必要 日本はマティス国防長官に独自の安保ビジョンを提案すべきである”

2017年 1月 25日



トランプ政権は、中国がアメリカに対して執拗な敵意を持っているために、交渉相手にはなりえないという前提のもと、去年、オバマ大統領と習近平主席が合意した気候変動に関する協力関係を反故にするなど、躊躇なく 挑発的な発言をしている。







しかしトランプ政権は、アメリカがまったく領有権もない南シナ海において、国連を無視して 中国を牽制するための 軍事的な対抗策に乗り出すだろう。 本当は、世界各地で起こる領土紛争を管理し、解決する方法は他にいくらでもあるのに、である。


中国が敵であるという論理は、愚かな軍国主義者たちが作り出した、理にかなわない見解である。中国は単純な国ではない。世界の人口の6分の1が中国人なのだ。中国は殆どの国際機関において既に主要なメンバーであるだけでなく、最近の中国は、海外での活動において、アメリカよりも遥かによく 国際法に従っているのである。











日本がわれわらが直面している現実にもとついて日本なりの安全保障ビジョンを出すには、 最近国際社会の傾向を 深く考えてそれに応じて新しいビジョンをマティス長官に 出すべきだ。科学的な視点を持って今の安全保障問題を客観的に分析すれば数多くの人が納得できる反論が十分に可能である。

今や技術は前例のない速度で進化している。2年ごとにコンピューターチップの性能が二倍に進化するという「ムーアの法則(Moore‘s Law)」が、世の中を大きく変化させている。このような急激な変化は、とても予測できない部分もあれば、安保分野のように甚大な影響を及ぼすであろうと予測できる部分もある。

確かに将来の安保問題は、今までとはだいぶ性格が異なるであろう。そのため、どのような手段を使用するかについて再考が要求されるのは当然である。でも今のところ日本の政治家、公務員、学者が「安保」を考えるには 非常に可能性の低い北朝鮮の核兵器攻撃を仮定として 軍事準備には莫大な資金を投入しながらも、気候変動のように生死の問題に直結する問題へ取り組む機会は、逃しているのである。

安保問題の解決には多国の協調が必要で 、今度は前時代の暗黙的な想定や、安保概念の偏狭な偏見を超えて韓国、日本、中国、そして、アメリカが 互いに緊密に議論していかなければならないが、その際、注意しなければならない点が二つある。








今後、我々が最も考慮すべき重要な変化は、1) ドローンやロボットの出現、2) サイバー戦争の精巧さ、3) 3Dプリンターや、その他非伝統的手段を駆使した物体伝送方式の出現、この三つである。従来の軍隊は、戦車、戦闘機、ミサイル、軍艦及び航空母艦などによって構成されており、これらはみな高価なばかりでなく、新たな武器にはとても脆弱である。




また、サイバー戦争は、我々に巨大な挑戦をもたらすことになる。いとも簡単に、敵であるわれらの武器を奪い取り、サイバー機能を利用してわれらにわれらの武器を使う 可能もあろう。そのため われわれハッキングすらできない在来の武器体系へ戻らなければならないことになるかもしれない。


しかも、このような能力は、民族·国家ではなく、特定勢力に悪用される可能性が高く、よって国際的な広範囲にわたる衝突につながる可能性もある。また、我々が今まで保持してきた国家安保政策の基本方針は、例外なく近代国家間の戦争を前提として計画したものであったが、これからの 葛藤、または紛糾においては、この国家安保に関する最も基礎的な概念が違ってくることになるでだろう。とても不安定で分裂した国際社会の秩序のもとでは、一般市民はそれを民族·国家間の戦争だと見なしても、戦争は国家間の争いへと展開して行かない可能性が高い。














戦争を引き起こす能力や武器の開発、それらの使用を真剣に制限するためには、組織化された高度な国際システムが必要である。ここで言う国際システムとは、国連で構想した「包括的核実験禁止条約(Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty、略称:CTBT)」や、「核拡散防止条約(Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons、略称:NPT)」などのようなものと、同様である。




“The New Colossus” and hope for an open society

On the “New Colossus”

Emanuel Pastreich

January 28, 2017

Fred Lang was so kind as to share Emma Lazarus’s poem “The New Colossus” this evening with me. I had been thinking about the decisions of the so-called “Trump Administration” to build walls around the United States and to start to block the immigration of people to the United States from Muslim nations. Fred picked exactly the right poem to give a glitter of hope.

This poem is inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty and has embodied a noble part of the American tradition for the last 150 years. Of course the racist and xenophobic tradition has also a long history in the United States, and the two strands of American culture have alternated since the Civil War.

One of the reasons that the Trump people are able to run over their opposition is that so many of the words that made the best of the United States have been detached from institutions and people. The words on the Statue of Liberty, or on the Capitol Building, have been reduced to mere words. Few today have fought or sacrificed for the constitution, the Statue of Liberty or other higher values for so long time. There are of course people suffering for the cause of freedom today, but they are almost invisible in the eyes of most people. The recent national prison strike was completely ignored by almost everyone I know in the United States.

Emma Lazarus was an American poet of German Jewish origins who took a deep interest in the sufferings of Jews in Eastern Europe. The title of her poem, “The New Colossus” suggests the contradictions of the United States. On the one hand, there was a confidence that something new and more humane could be achieved here. But of course “colossus” also suggests the pomp and arrogance of Rome, the imperial disease.

The New Colossus


Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,

With conquering limbs astride from land to land;

Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand

A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame

Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name

Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand

Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command

The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.

“Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she

With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,

I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

I cannot help thinking of Percy B. Shelley’s sonnet “Ozymandias” about imperial arrogance. In any case, today it seems as if Emma Lazarus’ poem is now up for grab—an opportunity for any one, any group, or any country who is ready to stand up for the huddled masses and offer hope to our torn world.

Emma Lazarus

「韓国は「第2のIMF危機」可能性に備えるべき」 (中央日報 2017年 1月 27日)





2017年 1月 27日

エマニュエル パストリッチ









  銀行改革に着手するために金融崩壊を待つ必要はない。一次的に最も重要なのは、銀行が高度な規制の中で、非常に予測可能で極めて「退屈な」存在にならなければならないという点だ。 Read more of this post

“要防范可能发生的第二次IMF危机” (中央日报 2017年 1月 27日)



2017年 1月 27日












应出于国家长远利益的考虑决定向什么人贷款。这一概念可能让人有陌生之感,但如果对官僚们进行正确教育,赋予他们决策权,我们可以恢复这样的文化。 Read more of this post

“Letter to Ban Ki-Moon from the midst of the gathering darkness” (Kyunghyang Shinmun January 26, 2017)

 Kyunghyang Shinmun

“Letter to Ban Ki-Moon from the midst of the gathering darkness”

January 26, 2017


Emanuel Pastreich

I know that many have approached you about the possibility of your serving as president of Korea after the anticipated impeachment of President Park. You have a unique set of skills and a broad range of friends in the international community that would serve you well. Today, you are surrounded by people asking for your help in this moment of tremendous uncertainty in Korea. But I hope that you have a moment to step back from the crowd and contemplate your role in history now that you have become such a critical figure.

There are several people out there who are entirely capable of serving as the president of the Republic of Korea. But there is an even more critical job, and you are the only one who is qualified to play that role as the former Secretary General of the United Nations.

Last week Donald Trump was sworn in as the president of the United States, someone who has openly opposed a commitment to universal standards on human rights and who has taken as a central advisor John Bolton, a man who is committed to taking the entire United Nations system apart. In addition, President Trump has nominated for secretary of state Rex Tillerton,  the former CEO of EXXON, , a man who has no interest in the response to climate change and who has advocated that the United States move to stop all Chinese actions in the South China Seas—an act that many experts think could lead to nuclear war.

The scale of the geopolitical crisis today cannot be overstated and Korea, located at the center of Northeast Asia, with close ties to both the United States and to China, will be one of the first victims of such a new cold war, or hot war. Korea needs you, and your network, to start an entirely original and powerful initiative that will offer an alternative to military conflict, get the focus back to climate change, and set the foundations for long term solution to address this crisis head using a coalition of the committed throughout the region.

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Asia Today

The Korea that can say “No”

 January 27, 2017

Emanuel Pastreich


Back in the 1989 the Japanese conservative politician Ishihara Shintaro wrote a best seller entitled The Japan that can say “No” in which he argued that Japan was punching beneath its weight. He imagined a self-confident Japan that was capable of refusing unreasonable demands from the United States and maintained a healthy equal relationship.

Ishihara is a cynical right-wing politician, but there is something of real relevance for the Republic of Korea today in his words.

The rise of the Trump administration means that Korea must be able to say “no.”

Members of Trump administration has made hostile statements about China that are so out of line with American policy, and so provocative, that Korea cannot have anything to do with its actions.

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“蝋燭を灯す韓国の若者へ” (ハフィントン ポスト 2017年 1月 25日)

ハフィントン ポスト


2017年 1月 25日



私達(この文章は私とアジアインスティチュートの丘芸倫璘 研究員が一緒に書きました)は手に蝋燭と直接作ったポスターを持って光化門広場に集まった皆さんを見てとても感銘を受けました。大学生もいたし, 高校生, さらに中学生もいました。









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“‘제2의 IMF 위기’ 가능성에 대비하자” (중앙일보2017년 1월 27일)


“‘제2의 IMF 위기’ 가능성에 대비하자”

2017년 1월 27일

임마누엘 페스트라이쉬

실업, 파산, 수출 감소 등에 대한 최근 데이터를 살펴보면 한국 경제 상황은 1997년 국제통화기금(IMF) 위기 때보다 더 나쁘다.

이번에는 선진국 경제가 훨씬 약한 데다 경제 민족주의가 힘을 얻고 있기 때문에 긴급 구제금융을 얻는 것은 힘들 것이다. 그리스 사례로 판단해 보면 큰돈을 빌리면 국가의 주권이 엄청난 손상을 입게 된다.

한국에 구제금융을 제공할 여력이 있는 나라는 중국이지만 중국은 현재 고고도미사일방어(THAAD•사드) 체계를 전개하기로 한 한국의 결정에 분노하고 있다. 한국 최고의 협상가들이 나서도 구제금융 협상 타결까지 엄청난 난관이 예상된다.

게다가 한국인들을 정치적으로 납득시킬 수 있는 외국 구제금융은 없다. 한국은 자기 힘으로 자본도 형성하고 개혁도 수행해야 한다.

놀랍게도 한국이 어떻게 이 위기에 대응할지에 대한 논의가 한국 매체에서 보이지 않는다. 금기를 깨고 한국이 무엇을 할 것인지, 어떻게 한국 경제 체제 전체를 개혁할 것인지에 대해 공개적인 토론을 시작해야 할 때가 됐다.

은행부터 따져보자. 미국의 소위 ‘은행’들은 더욱더 투기적인 활동에 몰두하고 있다. 예컨대 회사들이 자사 주식을 다시 사들여 회사 가치를 높이는 것을 돕고 있다. 또 국가 경제나 시민의 안녕과는 아무런 긍정적인 관계가 없는 파생상품 같은 다양한 ‘어두운’ 금융상품에 관여하고 있다.

은행 개혁에 착수하기 위해 금융 붕괴를 기다릴 필요는 없다. 일차적으로 가장 중요한 것은 은행이 고도의 규제 속에 매우 예측 가능하며 지극히 ‘따분한’ 존재가 돼야 한다는 점이다.

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