Monthly Archives: July 2017

「トランプは忘れて、京都を再び始めよう! 」ハフィントンポスト

ハフィントンポスト

「トランプは忘れて、京都を再び始めよう! 」

2017年 7月 31日

エマニュエル・パストリッチ

ドナルド・トランプ米国大統領がパリ協定の離脱を一方的に宣言し、アメリカ国内の環境保護に関する全ての規制を解除するなど、気候変動に対して無謀な対応をし始めると、全世界の市民たちには衝撃が走った。

トランプ政権の登場は、企業から支援を受けている気候変動拒否勢力と結合して急浮上し、危ないアメリカの反知性主義から最終的に生まれた産物である。また、これはアメリカがこれ以上、グローバル・リーダーシップを発揮することができないことを意味している。

アメリカの政治文化は、今や連邦政府が腐敗した実業家に掌握されてしまうほどに衰退してしまった。

アメリカの化石燃料業界や腐敗した議会はこの20年間、科学的原理を基盤に立脚した非常に重要な世界的レベルでの環境政策に関する話し合いを絶えず妨害しようと試みてきた。テロに焦点を合わせることで、人類の歴史上、類を見ないほどの最大規模の保安脅威である気候変動をずっと無視し続けてきたのである。

現在、アメリカ政府は、恥ずかしいことに化石燃料業界の手先になってしまい、パリ協定を無効化させ、拘束力をなくそうと各種のロビー活動を行っている。

日本の出番

アメリカ政府は、政策決定の過程においては専門家の存在を認めておらず、とりわけ現在の生態系の災難規模を意図的に過小評価するため、投資銀行や化石燃料業界の関係者など、企業の利害を反映した政策をバックアップしている。 Read more of this post

“Real reason Korea should fear China” ( The Korea Times July 25, 2017 )

The Korea Times

“Real reason Korea should fear China”

July 25, 2017

Emanuel Pastreich

 

The news that China will phase out all fossil-fuel taxis the near future plying the streets of Beijing, and that the government has approved plans for the massive implementation of electric cars across the country, has been buried under articles in Korea about Pyongyang’s nuclear weapons and possible FTA (free trade agreement) re-negotiations.

I remember the single pathetic electric car parked for years in front of the president’s office at KAIST University. As it rusted away there proudly, no steps were taken to actually start using electric automobiles on a large scale in Daejeon, or Korea.

While Koreans were fretting about whether President Trump would be nice to President Moon Jae-in, China has committed $360 billion through 2020 to the development of renewable power and is well on its way to being the dominant power for the development and production of solar and wind power.

Perhaps Koreans are thinking that if they just make a few more smart phones, or sell a few more sleek automobiles overseas, the Korean economy will get back on its feet. Sadly, they have failed to grasp the monumental scale of the economic and technological shifts taking place today.

Let us look at the current economic shift from a historical perspective. China had the largest and most sophisticated economy in the world before it was displaced by Great Britain. China’s success drew on its high level of education and the lack of military conflicts in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but above all it was China’s capacity for the production of food on a massive scale, with high efficiency, that was the key point.

Before the 1830s, energy took the form of human and animal labor. That is to say that energy could only be obtained from the sun via photosynthesis in agricultural production of food and them expressed through manual and animal labor.

China had a sophisticated long-term agricultural policy, the crowning glory of which was the expert administration of an advanced irrigation system covering the entire country.

But the British (and later the French and Germans) started a new economic system based on coal in the 19th century. Coal provided far more energy than wood, or than manual labor, and powered factories that produced goods on a massive scale. The Chinese system could not complete with this new economic process, and when coal power spilled over into military applications, China (and all of Asia) found themselves humiliated in the Opium Wars.

But that coal-based economy that drove the British Empire did not last forever. The United States moved quickly in the early twentieth century to build the infrastructure for an economy based on petroleum, a fossil fuel even more efficient than coal. The United States embraced this new petroleum-based economy quickly because it had the institutional flexibility to do so, and also because the American economy was not tied to coal to the degree that Britain’s was. The United States ended up at the center of an automobile-centered new global economy.

But the game was not over. China is challenging the world economic system, taking full advantage of recent efficiency breakthroughs in solar and wind power that make a fossil fuel-free economy possible. These breakthroughs form an exact parallel to the breakthroughs in steam engines early in the 19th century in Britain and Germany that turned the world economy upside down.

China is well on its way to dominating this new paradigm for energy production, one which may eliminate the need to import expensive fuels to power production ― not to mention reducing costly foreign wars to secure petroleum.

If China manages to dominate the technology for solar and wind energy production, control its manufacture it will thereby effect a fundamental shift in the global economy that will be the equivalent to the two previous turning points in world history. Parallel to China, Germany has also started to move towards renewable energy in full force.

And what about Korea?  If Korea cannot break with its current petroleum-dominated economy and it fails to make that fundamental leap in its thinking about the economy, what are its prospects? The future is grim for Korea if it   lacks the will to walk away from its addiction to Middle Eastern and American oil money? It could go down with the nations trapped in an outdated economic system, just like China did in the 19th century.

The changes that are required to adopt this new renewable energy paradigm are profound. One thing is certain. The time has come for Koreans to awaken from their dream of exporting their way to riches, and rather to take a hard look at the foundations of the Korean economy.

エマニュエル パストリッチの物語

エマニュエル パストリッチの物語

 

エマニュエル・パストリッチ(Emanuel Pastreich)は、元々東アジア古典文学専門を大学で専攻し、その比較研究を長年したため、日本語、中国語、韓国語に堪能になり、幅広いネットワークを持っていた。アメリカでは、イリノイ大学の助教授を務めていた。

2001年5月、パストリッチが東アジアの著名な大学とのインターネットを通じた教育と共同研究する企画書を作り、イリノイ大学の内部でそれを当局と論議することになった。その後、前例のないインターネット教育プログラムを日本の東京大学、韓国のソウル大学、そして中国の北京大学にも提示し、彼等から非常に評価された。

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Korea’s True Security Challenges (Essay)

Korea’s True Security Challenges

 July 20, 2017

Emanuel Pastreich

 

Decay of the media and of the decision-making process

The Korean peninsula faces a daunting array of security problems that will require tremendous efforts over the long term to overcome.  But the most serious security risk of all is the complete inability of the Korean people to understand what the real threats are that they face. The media, the entertainment industry and a vast culture of denial has combined forces to distract and misdirect the Korean people away from the real dangers of this age.

Koreans are told over and over by their newspapers and TV news that the greatest risk is of a nuclear missile being launched from North Korea which will destroy Seoul. In fact, North Korea’s military posture is entirely defensive and there is no chance that they would launch a missile at South Korea except as a response to an attack.

By contrast, Koreans are all but unaware of the collapse of the ecosystem in Northeast Asia, the death of the seas (and the fish that they depend on for food) as a result of warming waters, the spread of deserts and shortage of water which threaten to engulf the Korean Peninsula in an enormous desert stretching into central Asia. They have not even started planning for the rising oceans, a massive infrastructure project that will leave Korea with no budget to pay for fighter planes, tanks or other outdated military equipment.

 As opposed to the highly unlikely attacks from North Korea that are hyped in the privatized media, the threats to the environment are essentially 100% guaranteed.  So any consideration of the issue of security on the Korean Peninsula should start out by noting that most people in South Korea are fed a diet of fictions that makes it far more difficult for them to grasp what the dangers are. They are often convinced that North Korea is about to rain down nuclear weapons on them even though that it almost impossibility.

Nor is the death of the ecosystem the only threat that the Korean Peninsula faces.

The rising inequality in Korean, and East Asian, society is tearing the fabric of society apart and will lead to serious conflicts domestically and internationally in the next fifteen years. The media covers North Korea in a less objective manner because it is controlled by concentrated capital that makes tremendous profits from military defense systems. Sources for unbiased information about how the world works like newspapers and universities are so deeply linked to the stock market and the secret world of capital investments that they are incapable of articulating an alternative viewpoint.

Although Koreans are aware that the concentration of wealth, and the death of a public sector in Korean society over the last thirty years has led to greater inequality, they do not understand exactly how and they are not encouraged to think deeply about this crisis. Even extremely liberal groups do not offer opinions on the profound contradictions of a decadent industrialized society. They do not advocate that banks or telecommunications companies should be highly regulated public monopolies. But that assumption was common sense to liberals and conservatives in the 1950s.

The death of sources of information independent from the stock market and foreign investment banks, the death of local community groups that gave meaning to the lives of ordinary people through regular meetings, cooperative efforts and mutual aid has left many Koreans exposed and profoundly lonely. We can see this fact evident in the high suicide rate for both youth and the elderly.

Life has been taken over by a ruthless consumption- driven culture that holds up as the definition of “happiness” the immediate satisfaction of the individual through the eating, drinking or watching of things that give a short-term thrill. Even politics has been reduced to a popularity show with little interest in the details of policy, or long-term developments and overwhelming fascination with the latest statement on the social media.

Such an environment makes it impossible for citizens to even comprehend what “security” is about and the politicians have become babysitters who tell citizens what they want to hear. As the old saying goes, “the people do not want leaders, they want magicians.”

The careful analysis of social, environmental and economic factors that are destabilizing Northeast Asia has been replaced by sensationalism. The rise of the video game culture has played a role in this grotesque transformation of the public sphere. Many Koreans (and Japanese), including adults, spend their time playing video games that glorify ruthless military conflict and make it appear as if shooting guns and blowing people up is not only good fun, but solves all problems. This gaming culture makes so effort to explain how security has become a more complex problem, nor to draw attention to social inequity or the collapse of the ecosystem.  Video games suggest that it is split-second response that is critical for security. That myth is critical to the military industrial complex.

So the best business is pumping up the stock value of military contractors through articles that suggest that a new nuclear submarine, or THAAD anti-missile system will protect Korea even though there is no evidence that this is the case. The profits from building submarines or anti-missile systems are staggering  but there is no scientific evidence that they do anything but increase the risk of conflict. Sadly, Korea is being pulled in the direction of the United States economic system, a criminal state  in which a large percentage of wealth is siphoned off in the interests of “defense” to pay for useless weapons systems that make the rich richer. The media is happy to play its profitable role. IN fact, because the media in general offers so little of any use to ordinary citizens, this spinning of fantasies may be their only profitable role.

  Read more of this post

Why Korea cannot put forth a Korean perspective?

Why Korea cannot put forth a Korean perspective?

July 22, 2017

Emanuel Pastreich

 

One of the great mysteries about Korea is why it is that although Seoul is full of many extremely educated and capable people with degrees from Harvard, Yale and Stanford, people who are extremely knowledgeable about topics from mechanical engineering to public policy and diplomacy, Korea is virtually incapable of advancing a Korean vision or perspective on current affairs. Extremely well-educated Koreans struggle with all their might to absorb and interpret the writings about North Korea and East Asia put out by American experts like Michael Green at CSIS or John Ikenberry at Princeton even though they have far greater understanding of the issues than those experts do.

The problem is much more serious today than ever before for the simple reason that Washington D.C. is incapable of making policy anymore. Paralyzed between a cabal of billionaires and their loyal minions who see the office of the presidency as a means to make large amounts of money and a professional class of bureaucrats and politicians who work for investment banks rather than for the national interest, Washington D.C. cannot formulate any long-term plans for itself, let alone respond meaningfully to recent developments in Japan, China or North Korea. Currently, the tendency in the United States is to paper over the increasing authoritarianism of the Abe administration, to present a caricature of Kim Jung Eun taken from a B movie and to make dark insinuations about a rising China threat at every opportunity. All this effort is linked to a deep level of denial about institutional decay in the United States itself.

South Korea has a more legitimate president than just about any other country and it has the expertise and the know-how to formulate its own policy and to make proposals for the future of East Asia. But if it relies on the United States and Japan to give it guidance, it will find itself increasingly at sea.

Why is it that Koreans have become so dependent on Western, particularly American, perspectives on economics, governance, security and diplomacy when Korea is far better positioned to put forth new approaches and launch initiatives, than the United States is? If we look at the question of engagement with China, there are far more Koreans who speak Chinese, who understand Chinese politics and economics in depth and who have a high level of education. And now with an isolationist and radically anti-intellectual Trump administration installed in Washington D.C., it should be the Koreans who are giving advice to Washington D.C., not the other way around. Read more of this post

THAAD as a totem

Watching recent reporting about the planned US missile-defense system THAAD being deployed in South Korea,  the debate is completely absent any attempt to consider what exactly the function of THAAD is and what its role is in the true security of South Korea. In fact, there is almost no discussion about whether a missile attack from North Korea is likely at all, or what other security threats might be out there. It seems rather that THAAD has become a totem (bad or good) before which one prays in the hope that it will bestow magical powers.

 

13375849-Weathered-totem-pole-in-pacific-northwest-forest-Stock-Photo-tribal

 

thaad-missile-lockheed-martin

The Proletariat of Facebook (hammer and paintbrush)

I must confess that when I saw this “hammer and paintbrush” logo on the Facebook page today, I wondered to myself whether Facebook has developed an organized proletariat. After all, the Bolsheviks became famous for their “hammer and sickle” mark. The hammer represented the workers and the sickle, the farmers who had been drawn into the struggle in that case.

hammer and paintbrush

In the case of Facebook, the symbol features the hammer and the paintbrush. Perhaps the hammer refers to programmers and the paintbrush to designers and the creators of content. As a creator of content myself, I would certainly be a paintbrush in the Facebook community. See my talk about Facebook.

hammer-sickle-communist-symbol-86344103

How about yourself?

 

“数字排序下的社会现实” (赵京的博客 Science Net 2017年 7月 9日)

京的博客 Science Net

“数字排序下的社会现实”

2017年 7月 9日

贝一明

 

 

每当我听到中国学生说他们担忧未来、说他们“对以后该做什么事感到茫然”时就感到无比痛心。未来他们能否有一份合适的工作,对于大多数学生而言都是不确定的。而更让我感到焦虑的是,某种遮盖于日常表象下的无形力量在不断地冒出来牵绊着他们。我们的社会还没有做好认可他们的价值的准备,要知道他们作为人类的一员理所应当得到这样的认可。

    社会似乎每时每刻都在遵循这样的逻辑,那就是:事物的价值只有用数字进行排序后才会得到认可,这似乎成了一条不能违背的法则。人也不得不遵循这样的逻辑,每个人所做的一切都被转化成数字,以确定他们在某种人为的排序下的位置。但是,这种排序具有一种远离我们日常经验的客观标准吗?  事实上,任何一组所谓客观的数据,都只是对事物的某个方面的一种反映,并不是对事物整体的反映。

生活在这种数字治理下,对人们做出判断时考虑的不是他们与周边的人有何种关系、他们的日常活动对我们的文化和组织有何贡献,而是用数字来确定人的价值。比如,我们经常会问“卖了几台IT设备”、 “发表了几篇社会科学引文索引(SSCI)论文?”、“检修了几辆汽车”等等。

   这样一来,数字成了确定价值的最终决定者。不管你有什么样的贡献,只要不能加以量化就不会得到认可。在这样的价值判断系统里,我认为学生们完全有理由感到困惑,因为他们并不知晓社会内在竞争的残酷性。极其复杂的人类经验、家庭成员或共同体、自然界与“我”这一个体之间发生的本质上非常微妙而又多层次的互动,不断地被以排序的方式表示出来。这种单一的数字被用来表示个体、组织甚至整个国家的价值。 Read more of this post

我发表我的论文“画中的小说:曹雪芹《红楼梦》中的一种文学隐喻”

我发表我的论文“画中的小说:曹雪芹《红楼梦》中的一种文学隐喻”

韩中红楼梦国际学术大会

“韩中 红学家的对话”

 hongloumeng.png

2017年 6月 24日 (星期六)

驻韩中国文化院

(首尔市 钟路区 祠稷路 8-23-1

“韩中应联手发挥“亚洲智慧” 召开“首尔气候变化会议” (亚洲经济新闻 2017年 6月 28日)

亚洲经济新闻

“韩中应联手发挥“亚洲智慧” 召开“首尔气候变化会议”

2017年 6月 28日

贝一明

 

 

特朗普政府不顾中国的强烈反对,强行在韩国部署萨德反导系统,使韩国陷入十分纠结的矛盾境地。

近期,特朗普政府退出《巴黎气候协定》的决定,令美国受到了来自全球各国的“冷落”。在此背景下,韩国不仅可以与中国并肩应对这一状况,还有望借助此机会在解决环境问题上起到主导作用。

长期以来,中国鼓励利用风能及太阳能等绿色能源,并减少对进口燃料的依赖度,试图切实履行《巴黎气候变化协定》。未来5年,韩国将增加对太阳能以及风能的使用,在极具发展可能性的这一产业实现主导作用,同时还将减少对进口化石燃料的过度依赖。韩国对化石燃料的超高依赖,使燃料进口大幅增加,还对大气质量造成负面影响。

若韩国能够果断地应对美国退出《巴黎气候协定》一事,特朗普的这一决定可谓是为韩国在应对气候变化问题上,实现跳跃式发展提供了历史性的机会。不仅如此,韩国还可在不损害韩美同盟的情况下,在重要性越来越大的环境安全保障(environmental security)领域,加强与中国的合作。 Read more of this post