Category Archives: Technology and Society

Crisis in Intelligence and the Way Forward

Crisis in Intelligence and the Way Forward

Emanuel Pastreich

1. Making the Information Crisis into an Opportunity for Brave Reform

The crisis in intelligence in the United States has reached an extreme today as the multitude of contractors that feed on massive, and often obscure, budget, clamor to be fed without any concern for the long-term interests of the citizens of the United States, the constitution that defines that nation, or the security of our brittle planet.

The question of what to do, however, is not so simple.

No matter how much intelligence agencies are maligned or rebuffed, it is a fact that the covert gathering of information by governments, corporations, and other organizations has gone on for thousands of years and, granted human nature, will continue to be a reality in the future. The process can be regulated, to a certain degree, and it can be given a higher purpose, but it cannot be eliminated.

But the current situation is unsustainable and dangerous. The commercialized exaggeration of the term “intelligence” so as to extend into the field of human experience has distorted and diluted its meaning. Both creating deep misunderstandings when it is applied inappropriately and suggesting that anyone and his uncle can engage in intelligence.

Sadly, although there were remarkable figures in intelligence in the United States who have stood up for the accurate and scientific analysis in intelligence and who have opposed the abuse of authority by intelligence agencies for profit, (some going to jail, most simply disappearing into obscurity), such moral commitment has declined perspicaciously over the last decade.

The entire intelligence community has been radically privatized so that those in senior positions merely oversee the granting of contracts to contractors and have little sense of camaraderie with others engaged in a global battle for the wellbeing of our citizens.

Intelligence agencies that once played a critical role in keeping politicians and other government officials, up to date on the true threats facing the nation, have been carved up by jackals and hyenas working for multinational corporations.

Essential analysis has been outsourced over the last two years to Facebook, Google, Amazon, Oracle, and other multinational corporations that cannot be said to be “American” in any sense of the world. These lumbering leviathans are owned by banks and private equity funds around the world, many of which are happy to sell short the United States at any time.

The result? The entire intelligence community has been transformed into an appendage of big tech that abuses the authority of the Federal Government to advance the corporate agendas of these monopolies.

Not everyone is in on this game. Some bravely fight against the silent takeover. Nor is this battle entirely new. Terrible internal conflicts have wracked the intelligence community before—often completely unknown to the man in the street.

But this destruction of “intelligence” is far more serious and must have been in the context of the greater act of menticide, the murder of the human mind, undertaken against all American citizens by shadowy multinational finance.

Whether it is journalism or education, entertainment or advertisement, the goal is to reduce us to instinctive animals that are incapable of anything but a desire for food, sex, and superficial distractions.

The conspiracy channels would have you believe that it is intelligence agencies that are driving this war on the citizens. This interpretation, although not entirely without basis, is a serious misunderstanding.

Although intelligence agencies have always had corrupt elements happy to do the bidding of the powerful, they have also had pockets of the brave and the committee who have the technical and geopolitical understanding and the training that allows them to stand up when professors, NGO leaders, and politicians hide in fear.

The evidence of criminality within intelligence agencies is overwhelming, but the ultimate source of those orders remains obscure. The massive privatization of intelligence means that the line between government, corporations, and organized crime are blurred, or completely disappears. Sadly, the super-rich is able to misuse these organizations and then redirect all blame to the CIA.

The breakdown of intelligence is taking place at precisely the moment that we desperately need a system that can assure the integrity of information in the United States, and around the world, for our citizens.

This intelligence crisis is taking place at the moment that we must assure that those in positions of authority have access to accurate scientific information, not distorted commercial media, or the slick brochures of lobbyists and persuaders.

We have an obligation in intelligence reform the citizens of the United States and to the scientific truth. We have no obligation to conform to corrupt practices in Washington, D.C. that are accepted as reality.

2. Intelligence and the Crisis in Governance

Professors and researchers, ethically committed citizens and journalists, should lead the charge in the search for scientifically verified information that will serve as the foundation for ethical governance. At the same time, we must recognize that the search for scientific truth is not a democratic process. If we are voting on the truth, treating all opinions as equal on Capitol Hill, then we are no longer engaged in ethical governance and democracy is impossible.

It would be the best tit we could limit the role of intelligence agencies to specific intelligence-gathering missions in the diplomatic and security fields, and to small-scale counter-intelligence operations. We should cut back the massive bureaucracy that benefits from creating, and expanding, problems, and create a small focused group of experts.

That vision, often articulated by experts, is not readily available to us today.

First, the intelligence apparatus has grown so bloated over the last twenty years as a result of the deliberate misinterpretation of the legitimate imperative to respond to the vast implications of the information revolution. We must recognize that the sprawling fields of intelligence subcontractors that surround the CIA, NSA, and now most branches of the Federal Government, will not simply disappear by magic. A complex transformation must take place in which new roles are established and a new institutional culture put in place that holds up high ethical principles, not the pursuit of budgets for private profit.

Moreover, the simple pursuit of truth in the post COVID19 era is a matter of life and death. The level of risk involved in speaking the truth in the face of multinational corporations and other shadowy organizations that defend the interests of the global rich is far too much for the timid likes of professors, journalists, and other researchers to take on. If it were not for the support (often hidden or tacit) of those in intelligence agencies, the hard-hitting alternative media would have been suppressed long ago.

Thus intelligence, a combination of the capacity to gather and analyze information, to promote a perspective even the most hostile environments, and to take action to respond to threats (real or perceived), is what makes these agencies so dangerous and at the same time so necessary in the face of the massive degradation of information taking place today around the world.

The above intelligence capabilities have often been employed by the rich and powerful to suppress alternative views and enhance their influence. That part of the story is well known. The manner in which intelligence agencies have used these three capabilities to defend people is virtually unknown. Yet that is precisely the role that is demanded by today’s crisis.

Reforming intelligence into a reliable and ethically committed institution that addresses directly the misuse of information by techno-tyrants is made even more difficult by the burgeoning conspiracy industry.

When I use the term “conspiracy industry,” am not assuming, as some would, that the various conspiracies discussed on the alternative media are specious and unfounded. There are numerous conspiracies that have taken place or are taking place, around the globe. Any intelligence professional must first accept the remarkable depravity of humans and accept that the battle for a better world requires us to pick our fights.

The conspiracy industry, however, often promoted by corrupt branches of the intelligence community, combines real evidence of the crimes by the global elite with fantastic, or exaggerated, narratives about Satanism, devil worship, Chinese and Jewish conspiracies for global domination, and other tales in a manner that misleads citizens as to the real interest groups behind these conspiracies and also makes it possible for authority figures to dismiss real evidence because those presenting it also talk about UFOs and the Second Coming.

In an age in which you can easily lose your life trying to speak the truth (inside government or outside government), we need for strong organizations, let us call them intelligence agencies, with the slap-down capacity, need to protect those investigating the truth. Only if the search for truth has a real backbone can it serve as a compass in the cloud of information chaos.

The fact that many of the intelligence experts have previously thought only about their paycheck and consulting contracts should not discourage us concerning the potential for transformation. Profound crisis, such as we face today, makes such transformation possible.

We must start by turning back the privatization of intelligence. We have seen an exponential increase in this trend over the last five years, a shift that can be traced back to the weakening of intelligence organizations after the Vice President’s directives for privatization as an effort to crush resistance to that regime within the intelligence community.

I was shocked when a friend recently sent me postings for job openings in North Korean intelligence analysis at Facebook, Amazon, Oracle, and Microsoft. Positions that once had to be held by government officials on long-term contracts paid for by tax dollars are now controlled by multinational corporations loyal to short-term profits.

Suffice it to say that Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft are not American organizations. Their stock is owned by the global elite, from Paris to Moscow, from London to Beijing, and they make decisions based on their interests.

Moreover, major investment banks like BlackRock and Goldman Sachs, which have also played a big role in the privatization of intelligence, have decided to sell the United States short as part of a strategy for reducing domestic resistance to tyranny by outsourcing American industry, that produces educated and self-sufficient individuals, to China, India or elsewhere. We need intelligence officers capable of standing up to multinational banks, not serving as cover for their nefarious plots and ruses.

We never want to see again a scam of the global elite pinned on the CIA while the real culprits celebrate in luxury.

3. The Impact of Technological Change on Intelligence

Part of the problem can be traced back to technological change and is not the result of the evil done by individuals. The exponential increase in the capacity of supercomputers in accord with Moore’s Law has created a tremendous capability to manipulate the decision-making process on a global scale and give undue power to the very few who control such supercomputers.

The small group of billionaires who control the best networks of supercomputers has become a shadow government that is above all the politicians we see on television.

Just as Gresham’s Law suggests that debased coinage will displace pure coinage in the economy as people start to hoard, the degraded information we are being fed by the media and by multinational corporations has displaced accurate information completely in our society, leaving citizens to try to make sense of the garbage that they are fed by the corporate media, universities and research institutes now bought and paid for by multinational banks, and celebrities cultivated by those same forces.

As Arthur C. Clark suggests in his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, technology is not simply a passive tool subject to the human will but is a force in itself that can determine human evolution and human thinking.

The exponential development of technology has created an environment in which new unprecedented risks are unleashed. The few can amass detailed information about all individuals in the world and also control the information that is presented to the citizens so as dumb-down the population (making democratic process impossible) and to slowly reduce us to slavery. The Constitution ceases to be of meaning in that process and the government becomes tyranny.

This process is already well underway in the United States, and the super-rich who are pushing the buttons follow the strategies of menticide outlined by Joost Meerloo in his classic study The Rape of the Mind: The Psychology of Thought Control, Menticide, and Brainwashing (1957).

Government is not prepared to respond to the radical degradation of, and manipulation of, information that underlies the true information warfare we witness today. We are not talking about Chinese spies who steal secrets, but rather multinational equity funds (including Chinese and Russians, but also Japanese and Americans) that intend to destroy the capacity of citizens to think for themselves.

Government is the first victim of the systematic manipulation of information by global technology tyrants. In fact, the tyrants who have launched this world war like to hide behind the façade of government and to attribute their evil acts to government officials.

The intellectual response to this global takeover may come from journalists, university professors, community groups and other activists. But they are easily intimidated and cannot formulate the strategies for global information warfare.

As dangerous as it may be to turn to intelligence agencies in response to this global assault, we are left with no choice.

The critical point, the decisive aspect, of the proposed reforms, is severing the connection between global finance and intelligence and then creating out of the parts of the intelligence community a powerful force, like the Army of the Potomac, that adheres to the Constitution, creating a group of patriots devoted to the interests of the citizens, to the true, and to principles of the Constitution.

To be specific, that means that the CIA, NSA, DIA, FBI and other organizations must be taken back by citizens of the United States, transformed into organizations that not only do not report to Goldman Sachs, BlackRock, Vanguard—or to the superrich who lurk behind those organizations, but that are capable of frustrating, or even facilitating the arrest and prosecution of the heads of these organizations.

We know for a fact that normal courts do not have the spine, or the global structures, necessary to take on these global forces that claim to control wealth beyond that of most nation-states.

Once the sections of the intelligence community that is not hopelessly infected with the cancer of global finance are able to rally, they must first assert that they are the government, not the appendages of global finance and that they are empowered by the Constitution to use their awesome power to defend the citizens against slavery by technology, much as Abraham Lincoln did in 1860.  

4. Defending the Intelligence of the Citizen at Home and Abroad

If we think more deeply about the future of intelligence in the United States, we are led to the inevitable conclusion that part of our role will be to defend “intelligence” in the other sense of the word: the capacity of citizens to think for themselves so as to play their sacred role according to the Constitution.

Although we have been so overwhelmed as to be unable to formulate our position, the current trend of “menticide” directed against citizens by the globally integrated AI systems controlled by the super-rich is an attack on the Constitution, and by extension, on the United States.

That is to say that a new role of intelligence must be to defend the ability of citizens to think, to serve citizens, and not to have their minds destroyed by pornography, video games, addictive apps, and the manipulative social media employed by dark forces to reduce them to passivity.

We must formulate a national and a global system to assure the accuracy of the information and to prevent its abuse that allows us to create a space for a regulated and public system for the control of information for the benefit of citizens that does not belong exclusively to multinational corporations, or to the rich. Current efforts funded by multinational corporations, directly or indirectly, to assert what is fake news have no legitimacy.

The question will be whether we can create, out of the ashes, new intelligence institutions that are “of the people, by the people, and for the people.”

Journalism will be a major part of this effort. The degradation of journalism over the last twenty years has been one of the most severe threats to national security. Much journalism today is a matter of opinion, with no application of the scientific method, no opportunity for alternative opinions, or for honest debate. Arguing that human activity does not impact the climate, that the Earth is flat, or that the Biden administration is Communist are allowed to pass without any scientific analysis.

The obvious answer for many is to intelligence out of journalism and to allow for a free press that is not force-feeding citizens the agenda of multinational corporations. Many citizens have rightfully demanded such actions and advanced powerful arguments for an end to this media puppet show.

There is another vision that deserves to be taken seriously, even if it seems counterintuitive at first glance. That is to argue that reformed intelligence agencies that represent the citizens and the Constitution should play a central role in the rebuilding of journalism in the United States and defending journalists.

Those who argue that intelligence should simply leave journalism alone are hopelessly naïve. Although it is certainly true that the influence of big money on intelligence, and on journalism, must be ended, we find ourselves in the midst of a hot information war on a global scale. Things may look peaceful for those sipping lattes at Starbucks, it is increasingly common for journalists who touch on sensitive topics to be threatened, or killed, around the world.

If we want to have journalism that presents accurate information in such a state of war, we must protect journalists and journals and make sure that they develop so as to fulfill their constitutional role.

In the current situation, it is necessary rather to rethink intelligence as a force that can fight for the integrity of information, and this transformation is possible.

It is not without risks, but nothing in war is without risks.

5. Moving Forward with True Intelligence Reform

We need to step back and take a new view of what the true challenges for the United States, its citizens, and the citizens of the Earth, are in this age of unprecedented technological change. We need to assure that that the United States has government agencies that provide the most accurate information possible to its lawmakers and to its citizens and that assures that the information in circulation is reliable. Such an institution does not exist now, even though it is desperately needed.

Such an institution can easily degenerate into a “Ministry of Truth” that suppresses the truth on behalf of the powerful. It does not have to follow that route, however.

In this age of fake news and massive mental manipulation, our citizens are subjected constantly to distorted information that are produced by the rich and powerful. The intelligence community which could protect them is assigned to an entirely different task and there is no other powerful institution to protect them.

The result is information anomy. The Internet is rapidly decaying into a ruthless jungle. Newspapers and TV news have degenerated into propaganda mouths.

It is essential that our citizens have accurate and objective sources for information about the world that assures stability in government policy and that will end the reliance of government officials on sensationalist media, or corrupt lobbyists, for information and analysis. True intelligence reform is not just about improving methodologies and policies, but about establishing a new vision for a healthy information ecosystem that makes its role critical to the wellbeing of all citizens. If done well, intelligence will no longer be a dirty word in our society.

(Korea IT Times, November 4, 2021)

“New importance of humanities in fourth industrial revolution” Korea Times

Korea Times

“New importance of humanities in fourth industrial revolution”

June 30, 2018

Emanuel Pastreich




There has been much talk about the importance of the humanities in this age of rapid technological transformation and we see funding for “digital humanities” programs that provide cutting-edge communications technology that is claimed will revolutionize teaching and will provide online videos that effectively present complex information for any number of viewers around the world.

We have scholars in history and in the social sciences who have obtained funding that allows them to bring to bear advanced supercomputing technology on historical or social conundrums.

Massive amounts of textual and statistical information are analyzed by them using supercomputers, and their unexpected discoveries are presented to us via fascinating graphs and charts. Big data reveals to us new truths previously obscured ― although we cannot help but wonder if the amount of time spent reading and pondering is being drastically reduced.
Read more of this post

JoongAng Daily

“Technology and critical thinking”

April 25, 2017

Emanuel Pastreich



Koreans boast to me about their country’s latest technological developments, or express envy for technologies that other nations have mastered. After 10 years working with Korean research institutes, and observing Korean society, I am convinced that the most serious challenge Korea faces is not a lack of technology, but rather the decline of scientific thinking.

A new automobile, or robot, is presented to Koreans as something miraculous, an amazing device that can do the impossible. Although such an approach inspires awe for technological achievements, it encourages complacency in our thinking and a sharp dip in our critical analysis. Citizens should be inspired to try to understand how a smartphone works, or for that matter how the government or the economy works.

Indulging in dazzling presentations leads to impulsive decisions and sloppy thinking.

News broadcasts these days assume that the audience doesn’t want to see anything that isn’t entertaining. Complex subjects are stripped down to simplistic one-line phrases. Of course, the technology used to film and edit these short programs is state-of-the-art. Excellent broadband service provides those images instantaneously for watch

What Korea must do is insist on the rigorous application of the scientific method in education, in media and in the policy decision process. Read more of this post

“Meeting the Great Data Challenge: The Case for a Constitution of Information” in Global Asia (January 2017)






Meeting the Great Data Challenge:

The Case for a Constitution of Information



Rapid advances in technology — from exponential increases in computational power to the miniaturization of surveillance drones and other means of gathering data on all of us — combined with the increasing ability to manipulate digital information and the emergence of virtual reality as an affordable medium of experience, are posing existential questions for human civilization as we have known it for millennia. In response, Emanuel Pastreich calls for a global constitution of information.

“We need a new concept of security due to technological change and climate change” (Asia Today May 10, 2016)

Asia Today

“We need a new concept of security due to technological change and climate change”

May 10, 2016


Emanuel Pastreich


Technology is evolving at an unprecedented rate. Even though Moore’s Law, the rule-of-thumb that computer chips double in power every two years, is drawing to a close, computers will continue to rapidly transform our world. These transformations have a profound impact on the security of nations, even though they are not well understood.
As we look towards the future, we risk spending tremendous amounts of our precious resources preparing for wars that will never happen and miss out on the chance to prepare for life and death challenges which are almost a certainty. The technology-fueled changes in the nature of national security mean that we can take our eyes off the past and re-focus our attention on real threats. – even the ones that don’t match up with our assumptions.
There are two major issues that need to be discussed openly and cooperatively between the Republic of Korea, Japan, the People’s Republic of China and the United States.
First we must consider whether technological change will render many weapons systems inappropriate in the years to come and ask ourselves whether a more profound rethinking of military issues is required, perhaps one that moves beyond the traditional nation-state assumptions we have used so far.
Second, we must consider whether we must limit the development of weapons systems, and rather turn increasingly to rigidly enforced weapons limitation treaties for fundamental ethical reasons because of the increasingly destructive potential of the next generation of weapons. We need to ask ourselves whether we will even have the budgets to pay for conventional weapons over the next twenty years in light of the tremendous costs of adaption to, and mitigation of, climate change. Could it be that we must reach binding agreements to limit, or ban, weapons so that we can effectively devote our precious resources to the basic steps required for human survival?


How technology is changing the nature of security
Will the nature of military conflict be so transformed by emerging technologies that most of our weapons systems will cease to play a meaningful role in the near future? We can’t assume that our conflicts will end or that deterrence is unnecessary. As technologies that can kill tens of thousands become cheaper and more accessible to small groups, even to individuals, we should certainly continue to think about how we will respond.
However, it is not clear that the battles of the future will be between nation states per se, which are rapidly fragmenting. Nor is it at all clear that the weapons we employed in previous conflicts will be helpful in such conflicts.
Three of the most important transformations are: 1) the emergence of drones and robots; 2) the sophistication of cyber warfare and 3) the emergence of 3D printing and other means of transmitting objects through non-conventional means.
The conventional military is made up of tanks, fighter planes, missiles and battleships and aircraft carriers, all of which are extremely expensive and vulnerable to these new weapons. Read more of this post

“Distinguishing science from technology” (JoongAng Daily March 7, 2016)

JoongAng Daily

“Distinguishing science from technology”

March 7, 2016

Emanuel Pastreich

I worked very closely with several national research institutes in Daedeok Valley back in 2008-10, and I participated in many heated conversations with the researchers working there about the future of Korea’s science and technology. At the time the researchers lamented the fact that Korea had lost the Ministry of Science and Technology that they associated with Korea’s rapid industrialization and long-term support of research.

But I must admit that I had a very different idea concerning this issue which I did not dare tell anyone. I felt that rather than reestablishing the Ministry of Science and Technology, Korea rather should split the “science” and “technology” apart and create a Ministry of Education and Science and a Ministry of Industry and Technology. Read more of this post

Kang Sung-mo on robotics and the 4th industrial revolution on G Lounge


February 7, 2016

Emanuel Pastreich


The Asia Institute

 steve kang on g lounge

Interview with Kang Sung-mo (Steve Kang) President of KAIST)

Arirang TV

G Lounge

“The 4th Industrial Revolution and its implications for Korea”


A discussion of robotics and their potential for Korea and for the world following Steve Kang’s visit to the World Economic Forum in Davos where the them was the 4th Industrial Revolution and what we need to do to prepare.


“Why Wikipedia Is in Trouble” Emanuel Pastreich

Emanuel Pastreich

“Why Wikipedia Is in Trouble”




This Time Magazine article “Why Wikipedia Is in Trouble”

(January 14, 2016) suggests that Wikipedia is in trouble because of some obscure cultural inflexibility. Although the problems with Wikipedia, despite its considerable popularity, are quite serious, the article intentionally misdiagnoses the problem so as to distract the reader from the real issues.

The failure of the article is perfect representation of the profound corruption of popular media in the United States. One of the most powerful myths even today is that media is simply dying because of the internet. If the information in the was sufficiently relevant and accurate, people would pay for it on-line. The problem is rather that media is increasingly written to protect special interests, rather than to deliver media. Media content is more often a mixture of propaganda with a bit of truth to make an almost convincing argument that will impact perceptions while avoiding a rational argument.

Let us look at what the article states:


“The problem, most researchers and Wikipedia stewards seem to agree, is that the core community of Wikipedians are too hostile to newcomers, scaring them off with intractable guidelines and a general defensiveness. One detailed study from 2012 found that new editors often find that their first contributions to the site are quickly rejected by more experienced users, which directly correlates with a drop in the likelihood that they will continue to contribute to the site.”


I have had a variety of battles with Wikipedians and I do not believe that they are simply hostile to new comers because of some form of cultural conservatism. They are hostile to people who have a different conception of Wikipedia which they consider to be a threat to their economic and political interests. The problem not more, or less, complex than that. Read more of this post

New Facebook layout for 2016

I have been pondering possible improvements to the format of Facebook that would have universal appeal among users. Please do look at my suggestions and let me know what you think.



facebook front page





Headings for the Facebook options:


Vote on new Facebook CEO

Vote on pending Facebook policy
Propose legislation for Facebook privacy

Suggestions for Facebook functions and policy (pending votes by Facebook citizens on policy)

Election of Facebook congress to represent your interest groups
Full disclosure of all Facebook financial transactions
Your Facebook stock value (amount acquired in return for the content you produced)
Your royalties today for the content you have produced for Facebook

Archive of Facebook postings
Post news
Review and correct news posted on major media
Find people with similar concerns globally
Organize a political party
Launch a class action lawsuit against a multinational corporation


Design your own emoticon

Write your literary work

Sell your design or work

Buy designs and texts
Develop business relations with other small businesses around the world

Find out rates for cancer and other diseases in your region
Update on air and water pollution in your region
Compare malpractice cases for doctors in your region
Where produce sold in local stores is produced and amounts of contaminant found


Post to Media:

Personal Post (privacy setting):

Entertainment Post

Your art:
Whistleblowing (corporate or government):

Facebook Search (select browser or create browser with your community):

“IT 시대, ‘필담’ 전통으로의 회귀가 필요하다” (월간 과학과 기술 2015년 12월 )

월간 과학과 기술


2015년 12월


“IT 시대, ‘필담’ 전통으로의 회귀가 필요하다”




임마누엘 페스트라이쉬  


아시아 전역의 전문가들이 국제회의 참석 차 모여 있을 때가 있다. 아마도 정부 장관, 교수나 사업가일 텐데 서로 어색하게 악수하고, 서투른 영어로 가볍게 인사를 나누다가 성급하게 대화를 끊고 서로에게서 떨어진다. 필자는 이런 모습을 목격할 때마다 민망해진다.


심도 있는 정보교환 이끄는 국제회의 환경 필요

이런 전문가들을 집결하는데 필요한 비행기 티켓 값과 호텔 숙박비는 값비싸다. 그런데도 전문가들 사이에 진지한 대화는 거의 오가지 않는다. 공유할 수 있는 엄청난 양의 지식과 경험이 있는데도 말이다. 정부나 산업체에 의해 마련된 비용이 많이 드는 큰 행사임에도 불구하고, 안타깝지만 대부분의 경우, 전문가들은 도착했을 때와 마찬가지로 돌아갈 때도 여전히 서로 전혀 알지 못 한다. 비싼 식사 모임을 갖는다고 해서 추후 협력에 대한 약속으로 이어지거나, 같은 행사에 참석한 다른 전문가의 지혜와 지식을 알게 되는 것도 아니다.

국제 정상회담과 회의에 참석하는 아시아 전역의 대표들에게 시간제한 없이 진지하게 대화할 기회가 생긴다면, 서로에게서 엄청난 양의 지식을 얻을 수 있을 것이다. 예를 들면, 다른 나라의 동료 전문가들이 자국에서 어떤 방식으로 새로운 혁신적 행정 전략을 사용하는지 배우고, 그 방식을 채택해 사용할 수도 있다. 또는 제조업에서 사용되는 새 기술이 어떻게 생산성을 크게 향상시킬 수 있는지 배울 수도 있다. Read more of this post